Traffic Rules

Alabama

Texting while driving is prohibited. Drivers aged 16 and drivers age 17 with intermediate licenses for less than 6 months are prohibited from using a handheld communication device while driving. Handheld cell phone use is prohibited in some municipalities, including Montgomery.


Alabama

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Alabama

State law requires drivers approaching stationary emergency vehicles that are displaying flashing lights, including wreckers, or utility vehicles displaying flashing lights traveling in the same direction, to vacate the lane closest if safe and possible to do so, or to slow to at least 15mph less than the posted speed limit. Also included in the law are municipal vehicles, utility vehicles, and Department of Transportation vehicles displaying flashing lights.


Alabama

Seat belts are required for the driver and front seat passengers age 15 and older.

The seat belt law is standard enforcement.

Riding in the back of an unenclosed pickup truck is permitted.


Alabama

Children ages 6 until 15 are required to wear a seat belt in all seats.

Booster seats or child safety seats are required until age 6.

Children must be in forward-facing seats or convertible seats until age 5 or 40 lbs. Infant seats and convertible seats are required to be rear-facing until passenger is at least 1 year old or 20 lbs. in weight.

All child restraint laws are standard enforcement.


Alabama

Driver shall keep to the right half of highway at railroad crossing unless area is obstructed or impassable.

School buses, vehicles carrying explosives, and buses or trucks carrying passengers must stop at all railroad crossings.


Alabama

Upon meeting or overtaking in either direction a school bus receiving or discharging children, or a church bus receiving or discharging passengers, driver must stop and not proceed until bus resumes movement or visual signals are no longer actuated.  Does not apply to traffic on a 4-lane divided highway moving in the opposite direction.


Alaska

Text messaging while driving is prohibited. Municipalities may also adopt ordinances prohibiting the use of a cellular telephone by a person driving a motor vehicle while on school property or in an active school zone.


Alaska

Wearing an audio headset or earplugs is not permitted while driving.

Exempts headsets when used and designed to improve a driver’s hearing ability or use navigational devices.


Alaska

State law requires drivers approaching stationary emergency vehicles that are displaying flashing flights, including tow trucks, traveling in the same direction, to vacate the lane closest if safe and possible to do so, or to slow to a speed reasonable and prudent for traffic, road, and weather conditions. Also included in the law are road maintenance and animal control vehicles.


Alaska

Seat belts or child restraints are required for the driver and all passengers age 16 and older.

Violation of seat belt law is a standard offense.

Riding in the back of a pickup truck bed is permitted.


Alaska

Children between age 8 and 16 who are less than 57 inches in height and under 65 lbs. shall be restrained in a child safety device or seat belt as determined by the driver.

Children over 4, taller than 57 inches, and weighing more than 65 lbs. shall be restrained in a seat belt.

Children between 4 and 8 years old, less than 57 inches in height, and weighing 20 to 65 lbs. must be secured in a booster seat or child safety seat.

Children between 1 and 5 years old and weighing 20 lbs. or more must be secured in a child restraint device.

Children less than one year of age or weighing less than 20 lbs. must be secured in a rear-facing child safety seat.

Violation of the child passenger safety law is a standard offense.


Alaska

All vehicles are required to stop when warning signs indicate to stop.

School buses and vehicles carrying fuel or hazardous material are required to stop at all railroad crossings.


Alaska

Vehicles must stop for buses when loading or unloading passengers. Vehicles are not required to stop if on the opposite side of a divided highway.

School buses are to be painted “national school bus yellow.”


Arizona

Drivers under 18 with a learners permit and intermediate license holders during the first 6 months after licensing are prohibited from using wireless communication devices, a secondary offense. Text messaging and handheld cell phone use while driving are prohibited for all drivers (effective January 1, 2021). School bus drivers are prohibited from talking on a cell phone and driving, except in emergencies. Some cities have additional restrictions, including Flagstaff, Phoenix, and Tucson that have a ban on texting while driving for all drivers and Coconino County has a ban on handheld cell phone use while driving.


Arizona

Licensees of child care facilities must ensure that an individual who uses a motor vehicle to transport enrolled children does not use audio headphones while the car is in motion.

School bus drivers may not wear headsets whenever the bus is in motion.


Arizona

State law requires drivers to reduce speed and, if safe to do so, vacate the lane closest to any stationary vehicles with flashing or warning lights, including emergency vehicles and tow trucks.


Arizona

Seat belts are required for the driver and front seat passengers age 16 and older. Children ages 8-16 must be restrained using a seat belt.

Violation of the seat belt law is a secondary offense.

Riding in a pickup truck bed is permitted.


Arizona

Children under 16 are required to be properly restrained in all seats.

Children who are age 5 to 8 and 57 inches or less in height must use a booster seat.

Child restraints are required for children under age 5.

Violation of the child restraint law is a primary offense.


Arizona

A person approaching a railroad grade crossing shall stop within 50 feet but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of the railroad and may not proceed if a clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device gives warning of the immediate approach of a train, a crossing gate is lowered or a human flagman gives or continues to give a signal of the approach or passage of a train, or a train approaching within approximately 1500 feet of the highway crossing emits a signal audible, an approaching train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity to the crossing, or any other unsafe conditions exist.

A driver suspecting a malfunctioning signal device where there is no gate or barrier may cross if there is a clear line of sight at least one mile in all directions and there is no evidence of an approaching train.

Motor vehicles carrying passengers for hire, school buses, and vehicles containing explosive or flammable materials must stop at all crossings except those in business or residential districts, or where a police officer or signal directs traffic to proceed.


Arizona

Driver’s must stop when buses are stopped and displaying alternately flashing signals except when the school bus is on a different roadway or controlled access highway or stopped in a loading zone where pedestrians are not permitted to enter the roadway.


Arkansas

Drivers age 18-20 are prohibited from using a hand-held cell phone while driving. Learner’s and intermediate license holders may not use interactive communication devices while driving. Text messaging is prohibited for drivers of all ages. No driver may use a handheld wireless telephone when passing a school building or school zone during school hours when children are present and outside the building; or in a highway work zone when a highway worker is present. School bus drivers are prohibited from using cell phones while driving, except in emergencies and while parked.


Arkansas

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Arkansas

State law requires drivers approaching stationary emergency response vehicles that are displaying flashing lights, including wreckers or tow vehicles, traveling in the same direction, to move to the farthest lane from the vehicle if safe and possible to do so, or to slow to a speed appropriate for road and weather conditions. Also included in the law are utility vehicles.


Arkansas

Seat belts are required for the driver and front seat passengers age 15 and older.

Violation of the seat belt law is a standard offense.

Riding in back of an unenclosed pickup truck is not permitted, except for employees on duty; some other exceptions apply.


Arkansas

Children ages 6 until 15 or at least 60 lbs. are required to be restrained in a seat belt.

Child restraints are required for children under age 6 and under 60 lbs.

All occupants must wear a seat belt when the vehicle is being operated by a driver with an intermediate license.

Violation of the child restraint law is a standard offense.


Arkansas

Vehicles are not required to stop unless directed by warning signals or when train is approaching.

Buses transporting passengers and vehicles transporting hazardous waste must stop.


Arkansas

Vehicles must stop for school bus loading or unloading, unless on a separate roadway of a highway divided by 20-foot strip.

School buses must be painted “national school bus yellow.”


California

State law requires drivers to slow down and vacate the lane closest to a stationary emergency response vehicle flashing emergency lights if safe to do so. This includes tow trucks and Caltrans vehicles if displaying flashing amber warning lights, as well as waste service vehicles.


California

Seats belts are required for the driver and all passengers age 16 and older.

Violation of the seat belt law is a standard offense.

Riding in the cargo area of a pickup truck is not permitted; some exceptions apply.


California

Children under age 8 and under 57” must be properly secured in a child restraint system.  All other children age 8 to 16 or over 57″ must be secured in a properly fitted seat belt. Children under age 2, and under 40 lbs. or under 40”, must be properly secured in a rear-facing child restraint system.

Children under age 8 must be restrained in a child passenger restraint system in the rear seat.

California law specifically requires children to be properly restrained, meaning the lap belt is low on the hips, touching the upper thighs, and the shoulder belt is crossing the center of the chest.

Children in rear-facing car seats may not ride in front if there is an active passenger air bag.

Violation of the child passenger safety law is a standard offense.


California

Buses carrying passengers, motortrucks transporting employees, school buses, and vehicles carrying flammable materials, farm labor vehicles carrying passengers, commercial motor vehicles carrying chlorine, commercial motor vehicles requiring markings or placards according to federal regulations, cargo tank motor vehicles transporting a commodity that at time of loading had a temperature above its flashpoint, and cargo tankers whether loaded or empty must stop less than 50 feet but more than 15 feet from the nearest rail before proceeding, unless otherwise directed by a traffic officer or traffic control device.

All other vehicles need only stop when directed to do so by traffic signal or traffic officer.


California

Vehicles must stop upon meeting, from either direction, a school bus that is stopped for loading or unloading children that displays flashing red light signals and a stop signal arm, unless the school bus is on the opposite roadway of a divided highway.


California

It is illegal to use a cell phone while operating a motor vehicle unless the cell phone is being used in hands-free mode. Persons under age 18 may not drive a motor vehicle while using a wireless communications device of any kind, including but not limited to a broadband personal communication device, a 2-way messaging device, pager, or laptop computer. All drivers are prohibited from using a wireless communication device to write, send, or read a text-based communication while driving. School bus drivers are not permitted to use cell phones.


California

Wearing headsets or earplugs in both ears is not permitted while driving or operating a bicycle, unless designed to aid hearing or specifically designed to attenuate injurious noise levels.


Colorado

Text messaging is prohibited for all drivers. Persons under 18 are prohibited from using a wireless telephone while driving.


Colorado

Wearing earphones is not permitted while driving. Exempts hearing devices built into protective headgear and headsets covering only one ear and used with a hand-held telephone.


Colorado

State law requires drivers approaching stationary emergency vehicles that are displaying flashing lights, including tow trucks, traveling in the same direction, to vacate the lane closest, if safe and possible to do so, or to reduce to a speed safe for weather, road, and traffic conditions. Also included in the law are utility vehicles and road maintenance vehicles.


Colorado

Seats belts are required for the driver and front seat passengers age 16 and older.

Violation of the seat belt law is a secondary offense.

Riding in a pickup truck bed is not permitted unless a person is seated in an enclosed cargo area.

Local jurisdictions may require off-road vehicle riders to wear seat belts or utilize child restraints if these safety devices are installed by the manufacturer.


Colorado

Children ages 8 until 16 must wear seat belts.

Children under age 8 must use a forward facing car seat or booster seat

Children under age 4 and less than 40 lbs., shall be properly restrained in a child restraint system.

Children under age 1 and under 20 lbs. shall use a rear-facing child restraint system.

Violation of the booster seat and the child restraint law are standard offenses.


Colorado

Any driver of a motor vehicle approaching a railroad crossing sign shall slow down to a reasonable speed.

If required to stop, driver shall stop at the marked stop line. If there is no line, driver shall stop no less than 15 feet nor more than 50 feet from the railroad crossing.

The driver of a school bus, or the driver of any vehicle carrying hazardous materials, is required to stop vehicle, listen, and look before proceeding across railroad tracks.


Colorado

Upon meeting or overtaking from either direction a school bus that has stopped, a motor vehicle driver must stop at least 20 feet before reaching the bus and not proceed until the visual signal lights are no longer being used.


Connecticut

Children at least 8 years of age who weigh more than 60 lbs. must wear a seat belt.

Children under age 8 or less than 60 lbs. are required to use a child restraint – either a car seat, or a booster seat secured by a lap-and-shoulder belt. Children under age 5 or under 40 pounds must be in a harness restraint – either a rear-facing or forward-facing car seat. Children under age 2 or under 30 lbs. are required to be in a rear-facing child restraint. Children riding in a vehicle without lap and shoulder belts are exempt from complying with the booster seat requirement.

Violation of the child restraint law is a standard offense.


Connecticut

Commercial vehicles transporting passengers, school buses, and operators of vehicles carrying hazardous materials must stop at railroad crossings.


Connecticut

Vehicles must stop at least ten feet from school buses loading or unloading that display flashing red signal lights. Vehicles from the opposite direction on a parkway or divided highway need not stop.


Connecticut

No person shall text message or use a hand-held phone while driving. Drivers under 18 are subject to a complete ban on cell phone and mobile electronic device use. Connecticut also has a general law against distracted driving, prohibiting drivers from engaging in any activity not related to the actual operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that interferes with the vehicle’s safe operation. School bus drivers are prohibited from using a cell phone while driving except in emergencies.


Connecticut

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Connecticut

State law requires drivers approaching one or more emergency vehicles, including tow trucks, that are stationary or traveling significantly below the speed limit, to reduce speed to a reasonable level below the posted speed limit and, if safe and reasonable to do so, vacate the lane closest to the emergency vehicle. Drivers approaching one or more stationary nonemergency vehicles are required to, if safe and reasonable to do so, vacate the lane closest to the stationary vehicle.


Connecticut

Seat belts are required for the driver and all front seat passengers age 16 and older.

Violation of the seat belt law is a standard offense.

Riding in a pickup truck bed is not permitted for occupants under age 16 unless belted; some other exceptions apply.


Delaware

All drivers are prohibited from text messaging and handheld cell phone use. Learner’s permit and intermediate license holders are subject to a complete ban on cell phone use. School bus drivers are prohibited from using cell phones while driving, except in emergencies and while parked.


Delaware

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Delaware

When approaching a stationary emergency vehicle, public utility vehicle, or tow truck with flashing lights, motorists traveling in the same direction are required to move to a lane not adjacent to the vehicle and reduce speed.


Delaware

Seat belts are required for the driver and all passengers age 8 and older or over 65 lbs.

Violation of the seat belt law is a standard offense.

Riding in the cargo area of a pickup truck is permitted.


Delaware

No child who is 65 inches or under in height or who is under age 12 shall occupy the front passenger seat of any vehicle equipped with a passenger-side airbag that has not been deliberately rendered inoperable.

Children under age 8 and under 66 lbs. must be properly restrained in a child safety seat or booster seat that meets federal motor vehicle safety standards appropriate for the child’s weight and height.

Violations of the child restraint laws are standard offenses.

The maximum fine for the first offense for a violation of the child restraint law is $25.


Delaware

Whenever any person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade crossing, train or other on-track equipment, drawbridge, or automatic signal system controlling the flow of traffic, the driver of such vehicle shall stop within 50 feet but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of such railroad, and shall not proceed until the driver can do so safely.


Delaware

When a school bus is stopped on the roadway or shoulder and is displaying flashing lamps, the driver of any vehicle approaching the school bus from the front or from the rear shall stop before passing the bus and remain stopped until such bus begins to move or no longer has the red stop lamps activated. On roadway or roadways with 4 or more lanes, the driver approaching from the front shall not stop.


District of Columbia

A driver of any vehicle shall stop the vehicle at least 15 feet from a school bus when its warning light is flashing, unless the vehicle is on the other side of a divided median.

All school buses shall be painted national school bus chrome.


District of Columbia

The use of a hand-held cell phone and text messaging while driving are prohibited. Drivers with learner’s permits and school bus drivers are prohibited from using cell phones of any type while driving. Distracted driving in general, which is defined as inattentive driving while operating a motor vehicle, is prohibited.


Alberta

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Alberta sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Alberta sets the legal drinking age at 18.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Alberta requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC.


British Columbia

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). British Columbia sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

British Columbia sets the legal drinking age at 19.

Ignition interlocks may be ordered for impaired driving offenders at administrative discretion.


Manitoba

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Manitoba sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Manitoba sets the legal drinking age at 18.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Manitoba requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC.


New Brunswick

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). New Brunswick sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

New Brunswick sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

New Brunswick does not require the use of ignition interlocks for impaired driving offenders but offenders have the option of using them.


Newfoundland and Labrador

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Newfoundland and Labrador sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Newfoundland and Labrador sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Newfoundland and Labrador does not require the use of ignition interlocks for impaired driving offenders but offenders have the option of using them.


Northwest Territories

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Northwest Territories sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Northwest Territories sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Northwest Territories does not require the use of ignition interlocks for impaired driving offenders but offenders have the option of using them.


Nova Scotia

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Nova Scotia sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Nova Scotia sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Nova Scotia requires the use of ignition interlocks for repeat and “high risk” impaired driving offenders, though other offenders have the option of using them.


Nunavut

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Nunavut sets an illegal per se limit of .06 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Nunavut sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Nunavut does not have an ignition interlock program.


Ontario

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Ontario sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Ontario sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Ontario requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC and third time repeat offenders with a BAC of .05 – .08.


Prince Edward Island

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Prince Edward Island sets an illegal per se limit of .05 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Prince Edward Island sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Prince Edward Island requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC.


Quebec

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC).

Quebec sets the legal drinking age at 18.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Quebec requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC.


Saskatchewan

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC). Saskatchewan sets an illegal per se limit of .04 BAC. Violating this law could result in temporary loss of driver’s license.

Saskatchewan sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Saskatchewan requires the use of ignition interlocks for all impaired driving offenders over .08 BAC.


Yukon

Canadian federal law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating beverages, with the illegal per se limit set at 0.08 percent blood alcohol content (.08 BAC).

Yukon sets the legal drinking age at 19.

It is illegal to fail to submit to testing or an evaluation for impaired driving.

Ignition interlocks may be ordered for impaired driving offenders at judicial discretion but other offenders have the option of using them.


Alberta

When a school bus displaying alternating flashing amber lights is on a highway divided by a median into 2 separate highways, an operator approaching the bus from the rear must reduce the speed so if the vehicle passes the school bus it does so in a cautious manner.

The operator of a vehicle approaching a bus displaying alternating flashing red lights must, if approaching from the rear on a highway divided by a median into 2 separate highways, or from the front or rear on a highway not divided by a median into 2 separate roadways, stop the vehicle before it reaches the bus. The operator must not pass the bus until the operator of the bus indicates by signal that the vehicle may proceed or the alternating flashing red lights stop flashing.


Alberta

At a railroad crossing when: (1) a clearly visible electrical or mechanical signal device gives warning; (2) a crossing gate is lowered or a flagman is giving a signal to indicate approach or passage; (3) a railway train within 500 meters of the crossing is approaching and either sounds an audible signal or is visible; or (4) a railway train is visible and approaching the crossing and by reason of its speed or nearness is an immediate hazard; the driver approaching the crossing must stop the vehicle no closer than 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railway and must not proceed until the train has passed the crossing or has come to a stop.

If a stop sign is erected at a railway crossing, a driver approaching the crossing must stop the vehicle between 5 and 15 meters from the nearest rail of the railway and must not proceed until he can do so safely.

At a railway crossing not controlled by a traffic control signal, the driver of a vehicle that: (1) is a school bus; (2) is carrying explosive substances as cargo; or (3) is used for inflammable liquids or gas, must stop the vehicle between 5 and 15 meters from the nearest rail of the railway. The driver must remain stopped, listen and look in both directions along the railway for an approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and must not proceed unless the vehicle can cross safely. In the case of a school bus, the driver before proceeding must open the front door and if practicable to do so with 1 hand, must open the window immediately to the left.

Drivers must cross the tracks in a gear that will not need to be changed while crossing the tracks and must not shift gears while crossing.


Alberta

It is not permissible to operate a vehicle with a child passenger unless: (1) the motor vehicle is equipped with a child seating assembly; (2) the child seating assembly is properly installed; and (3) the child is occupying and properly secured in the child seating assembly.

It is not permissible to operate a motor vehicle on the highway with a passenger at least 6 years of age but under 16 years, or a child weighing more than 18 kg., occupying a seating position with a seat belt assembly unless the passenger is wearing the complete seat belt assembly.

A child from birth up to 9 kg. can be in either a rear-facing infant seat or a rear-facing convertible seat, used and installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

A child weighing 9 to 18 kg. must be in a child safety seat and be properly secured by using the vehicle seat belt and the child safety seat tether strap.

When a child is over 18 kg., an approved booster seat for the vehicle or the vehicle seat belt may be used.


Alberta

In a motor vehicle equipped with a seat belt assembly, the driver and the passengers must wear the complete seat belt assembly.

It is not permissible to remove, render partly or wholly inoperative, or modify a seat belt assembly in a motor vehicle to reduce its effectiveness.

A person may ride in the bed of a truck: (1) when the nature of the person’s occupation requires the person to ride in the bed; or (2) when the person is engaged or employed in agricultural, horticultural, or livestock raising operations and riding in the bed of the truck is related to one of these operations.


Alberta

A motorist may not drive more than 60 kph or the maximum speed limit, whichever is lower, if the vehicle is travelling on the same side of the highway and in the lane immediately adjacent as a stopped emergency vehicle or tow truck, and is passing the stopped emergency vehicle or tow truck when its flashing lamps are operating.


Alberta

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Alberta

The use of handheld cell phones and text messaging while driving is prohibited. No person may drive while engaged in an activity that distracts the individual from the operation of the vehicle, including reading or viewing printed material, writing, printing or sketching, engaging in personal grooming or hygiene.


New Brunswick

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


British Columbia

Drivers must stop for school buses with flashing lights whether approaching from the front or rear. The vehicle may not proceed until the school bus moves on or the driver turns off the lights or pulls in the stop sign.


British Columbia

Drivers must yield to all trains and must stop if a signal or flag person so indicates and not proceed until it is safe to do so. Stop between 5 and 15 meters from the closest rail. If there is a crossing gate down, drivers must wait for it to go up before proceeding.


British Columbia

All infants must be properly secured in an approved rear-facing infant seat away from an active frontal airbag until they reach a weight of 9 kg and 1 year old.

All children weighting 9-18 kg must be secured in an approved child seat.

All children must be restrained in an age and weight appropriate child seat until 9 years of age, unless they have reached the height of 145 cm tall.


British Columbia

Where a vehicle is fitted with seat belts, the complete seat belt must be worn properly unless the person has an official exemption form signed by a medical practitioner.

Exemptions exist only for vehicles manufactured without seat belts, taxis, police, and emergency vehicles, buses made before 1995 weighing more than 4,536 kg, and for verified and certified medical reasons.


British Columbia

Drivers approaching a stopped emergency vehicle, including tow trucks, displaying flashing lights must slow down, and if traffic permits, move over into the adjacent lane in order to pass by.


British Columbia

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


British Columbia

The use of text messaging and handheld cell phones while driving are prohibited.


Manitoba

The driver and passengers of a motor vehicle must wear passenger restraints when the vehicle is driven on the highway. When a passenger restraint consists of a separate pelvic and torso restraint, the driver and passengers may wear the pelvic restraint only.

It is illegal to ride on a vehicle or on any portion not designed or intended for the use of passengers.

Failure to comply with the passenger restraint requirements may result in a fine of up to C$2,000.


Manitoba

Text messaging and using a hand-held cell phone or other device are not permitted while operating motor vehicle that is in motion.


Manitoba

Wearing headphones on both ears it not permitted while driving or operating a bicycle.


Manitoba

Drivers approaching a stopped roadside assistance vehicle, including a tow truck, must slow down and pass the stopped vehicle only if safe to do so.


Manitoba

It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle when a passenger at least 5 but not yet 18 years of age, or a passenger under the age of 5 that weighs over 23 kg, is not wearing a passenger restraint. When the passenger restraint consists of a separate pelvic and torso restraint, the driver and passengers may wear the pelvic restraint only.

It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle with a passenger age 5 until 9 years of age or under 145 cm or under 36 kg who is not secured using a booster seat.

It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle with a passenger under 5 years of age and under 23 kg who is not fastened in a child restraint device.


Manitoba

A driver approaching a railway crossing where a stop or warning sign has been erected must stop the vehicle: (1) not less than 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railway if the crossing is a restricted area; and (2) not less than 15 meters from the nearest rail if the crossing is not in a restricted speed area, and may not proceed until the driver can do so safely, until a traffic control device or flagman ceases to give warning of an approaching train or until a crossing gate is raised.

The driver of a vehicle carrying passengers for compensation, a school bus carrying children, or a vehicle carrying flammable liquids or gas, whether or not full, who is approaching a railway crossing must: (1) stop and look in both directions; (2) listen for signals indicating the approach of a train; and (3) in the case of a bus, open the door of the vehicle. The driver must not proceed unless the driver can do so safely.

It is not permissible to cross the railway tracks in a gear that needs to be changed while crossing the track.


Manitoba

When a school bus is stopped on a highway and the lamp or other warning devices are displayed, the driver of a vehicle approaching the school bus from any direction must bring the vehicle to a stop at least 5 meters from the school bus; the driver must not proceed unless the bus resumes motion, or the warning signals cease to operate.

The driver of a vehicle upon a divided highway need not stop upon meeting or overtaking a school bus that is on a different roadway.


New Brunswick

The use of handheld cellular phones, text messaging, two-way radios, or any other kind of handheld electronic device is prohibited.


New Brunswick

The driver of a motor vehicle meeting or overtaking a stopped school bus on a highway when the bus is displaying flashing red lights must stop vehicle at not less than 5 meters from the bus and not pass until lights cease to flash. This does not apply to the driver of a motor vehicle meeting a bus on a highway divided by a median.


New Brunswick

Drivers approaching a stopped emergency vehicle equipped with at least one flashing red light must slow down, proceed with caution, and move to a non-adjacent lane, if possible.


New Brunswick

Every driver and passenger of a motor vehicle driven on the highway in which a seat belt assembly is provided must wear the complete seat belt assembly.

It is not permissible to operate a motor vehicle on a highway with a person in any portion of the motor vehicle not designed or used for carrying passengers, or to ride in a motor vehicle in the portion not designed for carrying passengers unless the motor vehicle is: (1) used in a parade approved by an appropriate government authority; (2) transporting persons who are working while being transported on the motor vehicle; or (3) transporting persons to or from a work site.


New Brunswick

A person driving a motor vehicle on a highway with a passenger 9 – 16 years and more than 36 (79-80 lbs.) kg or more than 145 cm (4′ 9″) must ensure that the passenger: (1) is wearing the complete seat belt assembly in a properly adjusted and securely fastened manner, or (2) is occupying and properly secured in a child seating and restraint system.

A person driving a motor vehicle on a highway must ensure that passengers 18 kg (40 lbs.) or less occupy and are properly secured in an appropriate child seating and restraint system. Children who weigh 18-36 kg (40-80 lbs.) but under 9 years old or under 145 cm may be in a booster seat. Children who weigh less than 9 kg (20 lbs.) are required to be secured in either an infant carrier or convertible seat adjusted to the rear-facing position while riding in vehicles where there is an available seating position fitted with a seat belt.


New Brunswick

The driver of a vehicle approaching a railroad crossing must stop the vehicle between 15 and 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railroad, when: (1) an electric or mechanical signal device is exhibiting a warning signal; (2) a crossing gate is lowered or when a human flagman gives or continues to give a signal of the approach of a train; (3) a train is approaching within 500 meters of the crossing that emits an audible signal; and (4) an approaching train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity to the crossing. The driver must not cross until the signal is no longer given or the train traffic ceases to exist.

The driver of a motor vehicle carrying passengers for hire, of any bus, or any vehicle carrying explosive substances, or flammable liquid as cargo must stop between 15 and 5 meters from the nearest rail of the roadway. At a stop, the driver must listen and look in both directions for any visible or audible signals of an approaching train, and must not proceed until the driver can do so safely. The driver of these vehicles must not cross in gears that must be shifted when traversing and the driver must not shift gears while crossing.


Newfoundland and Labrador

The use of hand-held cellular phones for voice communication or text messaging is prohibited.


Newfoundland and Labrador

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Newfoundland and Labrador

Upon approaching an emergency vehicle, including a tow truck, that is stopped on a highway with its emergency lights activated, the driver of a vehicle travelling on the same side of the highway shall slow down and proceed with caution and move to a non-adjacent lane if it is safe to do so.


Newfoundland and Labrador

All drivers and front seat passengers must wear properly fastened seat belts unless a person is driving a vehicle in reverse, a person holds a certified report by a qualified physician stating that for medical reasons the person cannot wear a seat belt, or the person is engaged in work that requires the person to reenter the vehicle frequently, provided that he or she is driving below 50 km/h.

Riding in pickup truck beds is permitted.


Newfoundland and Labrador

A child who weighs less than 9 kg must be secured in a rear-facing infant car seat.

A child who weighs 9 kg or more but less than 18 kg must be secured in a child car seat or an infant car sear as recommended by the manufacturer.

A child who is under age 8 and weighs more than 18 kg but less than 37 kg and is less than 145 cm in height must be secured in a booster seat and the vehicle’s complete seat belt assembly, or in a child car seat as recommended by the manufacturer.

These requirements do not apply if the driver holds a certified report by a qualified physician stating that the child cannot be placed in the restraint system because of medical reasons.

A child who is under age 16 must wear a properly secured and fastened seat belt regardless of seating position.


Newfoundland and Labrador

When a driver of a vehicle is approaching a railway crossing at a time when a clearly visible electrical or mechanical signal device gives warning of the approach of a railway train, a crossing gate is lowered or a person holding a flag is giving a signal of the approach or passage of a railway train, a stop sign has been erected at the crossing, or a railway train in dangerous proximity to a crossing is approaching the crossing and emits an audible signal or is visible, the driver must stop the vehicle at least 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railway and must proceed only when it is safe to do so.


Newfoundland and Labrador

The driver of a vehicle meeting or overtaking, from either direction, a school bus that has stopped or is about to stop to discharge or pick up school children must stop the vehicle before reaching the bus, and must not proceed until the school bus resumes motion or the driver of the bus signals that it is okay for the vehicle to proceed.


Northwest Territories

A driver, on meeting a school bus that is headed in the same or opposite direction as the driver and has its flashing lights in use, must stop his or her vehicle before it reaches the bus and not proceed until the flashing lights are no longer in use.


Northwest Territories

A driver must reduce his speed to half the posted speed limit when passing within 120m of a stopped emergency or enforcement vehicle with lights flashing.


Northwest Territories

Seat belts are required for all drivers and passengers over age 15.

No person may ride and no driver may permit a person to ride in the box of a truck unless the truck is being operated within a municipality or settlement the has a by-law permitting a person to do so and is travelling at less than 25 km/h; or is a vehicle engaged in highway maintenance, an enforcement or emergency vehicle, part of an approved parade, or a garbage disposal vehicle being used to collect garbage.


Northwest Territories

All children weighing less than 18 kg are required to be in a child restraint system when in a motor vehicle. Children weighing less than 9 kg must be secured in a rearward facing child restraint system.


Northwest Territories

When a driver approaches a railway crossing and a warning device or flag operator indicates that a train is approaching, or a train that is approaching is visible or is emitting an audible signal and it is not possible to cross the railway crossing in safety, the driver must stop his vehicle not less than 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railway. The driver must not proceed across the railway crossing until it is safe to do so.

No driver may drive through, around, or under a crossing gate or barrier at a railway crossing when the gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

Where a stop sign has been erected at a railway crossing, a driver must stop his or her vehicle not less than 5 meters from the nearest rail of the railway and must not proceed until it is safe to do so.

A driver approaching a railway crossing must listen and look in both directions of the crossing for an approaching train.

No driver shall turn his or her vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction if he or she is driving on a railway crossing or within 30 m of a railway crossing.


Northwest Territories

Handheld cell phone use and texting messaging while driving are banned.


Northwest Territories

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Nova Scotia

It is illegal to use a handheld cellular phone or engage in text messaging while operating a vehicle on a highway.


Nova Scotia

No prohibition on wearing of headsets while driving.


Nova Scotia

Drivers passing a stopped emergency vehicle with flashing lights must decrease speed to the speed limit or 60 kph, whichever is less, and must vacate the lane closet to the stopped vehicle, if safe to do so.