Title Transfer of Ownership (Click here for Canada)

United States

Alabama

If owner transfers interest in vehicle, except by creation of security interest, may execute assignment and warranty of title at time of vehicle delivery.

If dealer buys car to resell and obtains certificate of title within 15 days of vehicle delivery, must execute assignment and warranty of title upon vehicle transfer to another person, unless transfer by security interest.

If owner interest is terminated or vehicle sold under security agreement by lienholder, application must contain last certificate of title, assignment of title, and affidavit certifying that vehicle is repossessed and that interest lawfully terminated or sold pursuant to security agreement.

Alaska

For any vehicle less than 10 years old, the transferor must include an odometer statement.

Arizona

Transferor must deliver an odometer mileage disclosure statement unless the vehicle is 10 years old or older or the vehicle has a gross vehicle weight of 16,000 lbs. or more.

If vehicle is registered, the registration expires and the owner shall transfer the license plates to ADOT or an authorized third party or submit affidavit of license plate destruction within 30 days of transfer of title.

If transfer is by operation of law, transferee has 30 days to apply for new title.

Arkansas

The owner shall endorse an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title for the vehicle and shall deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivery of the vehicle.

The transferee of any new or used vehicle required to be registered shall do so within 30 days.

The transferee shall at the time of application present the assigned certificate of title prior to obtaining the new title.

An odometer reading is required.

California

An effective transfer requires endorsement and delivery of certificate of ownership by transferor to transferee and delivery by transferee of the certificate to the DMV, with proper transfer fee and application for transfer of registration, within 10 days of receipt by the transferee.

Transfer may also be effected when an owner, within 5 calendar days of transfer or sale, provides notice to the DMV of such transfer or sale including the name and address of the owner and the transferee, a description of the vehicle, and the mileage at the time of sale or transfer.

Prior to, or at the time of sale or transfer, the owner must provide the transferee with a valid certificate of compliance stating that the vehicle meets state air pollution control standards.

Colorado

If a person other than a dealer sells or wishes to transfer their vehicle, the individual shall execute a formal transfer of vehicle. This transfer shall be affirmed by a statement signed by the person whose name is currently on the certificate of title of said vehicle.

Within 45 days, the purchaser or transferee shall present certificate with application for a new certificate of title to the DOR.

Connecticut

At the time of transfer of a vehicle, the transferor shall execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee, showing the name and address of the transferee, and the transferor shall deliver such title to the transferee or commissioner.

A lien holder shall, at the request of the owner or transferee, deliver the certificate to the transferee or the commissioner.

Delaware

Upon transfer of ownership, the buyer must surrender to the DMV the seller’s endorsed certificate of ownership.  Also, an owner is able to have their motor vehicle title issued in a transfer-on-death form by including in the certificate of title a designation of a beneficiary or beneficiaries so that, upon the owner’s death, the motor vehicle will be a non-probate asset that will pass to the beneficiary or beneficiaries named in the title.

District of Columbia

An owner has 4 days after selling a vehicle to execute and deliver an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee.

Florida

No person shall sell or otherwise dispose of a motor vehicle or mobile home without delivering to the purchaser or transferee a certificate of title indicating the name of the purchaser.

Upon transfer or reassignment of a certificate of title to a used motor vehicle, the transferor shall complete the odometer disclosure statement provided on the title. The transferee shall acknowledge the disclosure by signing and printing his or her own name in the spaces provided.

Each lien, mortgage, or encumbrance on a motor vehicle or mobile home title in Florida shall be noted upon the face of the Florida certificate of title.

Georgia

The transferor must enter on the certificate of title the mileage shown on the odometer at the time the transferor assigns the vehicle unless the vehicle is more than 10 model years old or the vehicle has a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of more than 16,000 lbs.

The transferor must, at the time of delivery, execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee in the space provided on the certificate of title.

If the transfer is by operation of law, the transferee has 30 days to apply for new title.

Requires proof of the payment of the sales and use tax as a precondition to titling motor vehicles.

The transferor must enter on the certificate of title the mileage shown on the odometer at the time the transferor assigns the vehicle unless the vehicle is more than 10 model years old or the vehicle has a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of more than 16,000 lbs.

Hawaii

Within 30 days of a transfer of ownership, the transferee must forward the certificate of ownership to the county director of finance, after both the transferor and transferee have signed the certificate in the appropriate space for transfers.

Upon receipt of the certificate of ownership, the director of finance issues a new certificate of registration and a new certificate of ownership.

Within 10 days of a transfer of ownership, the transferor must give notice, on an official form, to the director of finance of such transfer indicating the date of transfer, the names and addresses of the transferor and transferee and a description of the vehicle; failure to comply with this rule carries a fine of not more than $100.

Idaho

A vehicle may not be sold or disposed of without the seller providing the title to the buyer.

In all cases of vehicle transfer, applications for certificate of title must be filed within 30 calendar days after delivery of the vehicle.

Illinois

Transferor must give the transferee an assignment and warranty of title at the time of the delivery of the vehicle in the space provided on the certificate of title and mail the certificate and assignment to the transferee or the Secretary of State.

Transferee must within 20 days after the delivery of the assigned title, execute the application for a new certificate and mail or deliver it to the Secretary of State.

Whenever the owner of a registered vehicle transfers or assigns his title, or interest thereto, the registration of such vehicle shall expire and the owner shall not be entitled to any refund of the registration fee.

When the transferee of a vehicle is a dealer who holds it for resale and lawfully operates it under dealers’ number plates or when the transferee does not drive such vehicle or permit it to be driven upon the highways, such transferee shall not be required to obtain a new registration of said vehicle.

Indiana

An effective transfer of title requires filling out, endorsing, and delivering the certificate of title by the transferor to the transferee and delivering the certificate to the Bureau, with proper transfer and application fees.

Generally, the certificate of title must be given to the transferee at the time of sale. If not, the title can be given to the transferee within 21 days of the sale if the transferor meets all of the following conditions: (1) the seller or transferor is a vehicle dealer licensed by the state; (2) the vehicle dealer is unable to deliver title; (3) the dealer believes he or she will be able to deliver the title without a lien within 21 days; (4) the vehicle dealer provides the transferee with an affidavit; and, (5) the transferee has made all initial agreed-upon vehicle payments.

Iowa

Upon the transfer of any registered vehicle, the owner must endorse an assignment of title upon the certificate of title for the vehicle with a statement of all liens and encumbrances. The owner must deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivering the vehicle. The owner must indicate the name of the county in which the vehicle was last registered and the registration expiration date.

The transferee within 30 calendar days after purchase or transfer must apply for and obtain from the county treasurer of purchaser’s residence a new registration and a new certificate of title.

The applicant will be required to pay a delinquent fee from the 1st day the registration fee was due prorated to the month of application for the new title.

When a vehicle is sold outside of the state for purposes other than for junk, the seller must detach the registration plates and indicate on the reverse of the registration card the name and address of the out-of-state purchaser or transferee over the seller’s signature. The seller must surrender the registration plates to the county treasurer, unless the registration plates are properly attached to another vehicle.

The transferor of a used motor vehicle must provide the transferee with a damage disclosure statement for vehicles seven model years and newer before a new certificate of title will be issued. The new certificate of title and registration receipt shall state whether a prior owner had disclosed that the vehicle was damaged to the extent of 50 percent or salvaged.

The transferor of a motor vehicle less than 10 model years old must furnish an odometer statement that is in compliance with federal law and regulations. This odometer statement must be furnished with the application for a new certificate of title. The statement must reflect whether the mileage is “actual,” “not actual,” or “exceeds mechanical limits.”

Kansas

The transferor shall endorse an assignment of the title to the transferee with a warranty of title, and shall deliver the assigned title to the buyer within 60 days of delivery.

The transferee shall then present the assigned title to the DMV when applying for a new title and registration.

The sale of a vehicle without transfer of the certificate of title is considered fraudulent and void.

Kentucky

When an owner transfers his interest in a vehicle, the owner must execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee.

Any person other than a dealer who sells a motor vehicle must deliver the certificate of registration and the certificate of title to the county clerk’s office and must transfer the vehicle to the new owner within 10 days of the date of sale or transfer. An affidavit attesting to the actual consideration paid may also be required.

If the transferor learns that the transferee did not promptly submit the necessary documentation to the county clerk within 15 days, as required by law, the transferor must submit an affidavit to the county clerk stating that the owner has transferred his interest in the vehicle.

A transfer of ownership will not be permitted unless evidence has been presented to the county clerk that all excise taxes imposed on the sale or transfer have been paid.

A transfer of ownership will not be permitted unless proof of insurance has been presented to the county clerk.

Louisiana

No person can sell a vehicle without delivering a certificate of title to the purchaser.

An effective transfer of title requires filling out, endorsing, and delivering the certificate of title by the transferor to the transferee and delivering the certificate to the Department with proper transfer and application fees.

If a certificate of title is held by a lienholder and the lienholder is selling the vehicle, the lienholder can make and deliver to the purchaser at the time of delivery a sales contract and an assignment of certificate of title on the Department’s form. These documents along with the certificate of title must be submitted to the Commissioner within 5 days of the sale. The Commissioner will then send the appropriate parties an amended certificate of title.

A vehicle that was previously purchased and titled in another state is allowed a credit against the state and local use taxes imposed in Louisiana.

Mississippi

When an owner transfers the ownership of a vehicle, manufactured home, or mobile home, he must, at the time of delivery, execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee in the space provided on the certificate and deliver the certificate and assignment to the transferee.

Missouri

When a vehicle is sold or transferred, the owner must endorse the certificate of ownership and sign a warranty of title with a statement of all liens or encumbrances on such motor vehicle or trailer, and deliver the same to the buyer at the time of the delivery to him or her of such motor vehicle or trailer.

The buyer must then present the certificate to the DVSB, at the time of making application for the registration of such motor vehicle or trailer, and a new certificate of ownership shall be issued to the buyer.

If such motor vehicle or trailer is sold to a resident of another state or country, or if such motor vehicle or trailer is destroyed or dismantled, the owner must immediately notify the DVSB. Certificates when so signed and returned to the DVSB must be retained by the DVSB and all certificates must be appropriately indexed so that at all times it will be possible for the DVSB to expeditiously trace the ownership of the motor vehicle or trailer.

Maine

When vehicle ownership is transferred, an assignment and warranty of title must be given to the new owner. The warranty must include the odometer information.

Maryland

If an owner transfers his interest in a vehicle, he shall, at the time of delivery of the vehicle, execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee, with a release for each security interest, lien, or other encumbrance on the vehicle, in the space provided on the certificate.

Applicants for certificates of title for a used vehicle purchased from a dealer must have, in addition to a completed application, a properly assigned title, a dealer’s reassignment, a dealer’s bill of sale, a Maryland safety inspection certificate, and an odometer disclosure statement.

Applicants for certificates of title for a used vehicle sold by someone other than a dealer must have, in addition to a completed application, a properly assigned certificate of title.

The transferee shall complete an application for a new certificate of title and mail or deliver it to the MVA or Maryland-licensed title service representative.

Massachusetts

If an owner of a vehicle for which a certificate of title has been issued transfers his interest therein, he or she shall, at the time of the delivery of the vehicle, execute an assignment including the actual odometer reading and warranty of title to the transferee in the space provided on the certificate, or such other form as the registrar shall prescribe, and cause the certificate and assignment to be mailed or delivered to the transferee or the registrar.

The new owner shall, promptly after delivery to him or her of the vehicle, execute the application for a new certificate of title in the space provided on the certificate or on such other form as the registrar shall prescribe and cause the certificate and application to be mailed or delivered to the registrar.

Michigan

 A person cannot transfer the plates to a vehicle without applying for a proper certificate of registration describing the vehicle to which the plates are being transferred.

Unless the transfer is made and the fee paid within 15 days, the vehicle is considered to be without registration, the Secretary of State may repossess the license plates, and transfer of the vehicle ownership may be effected and a valid registration acquired thereafter only upon payment of a transfer fee of $15 in addition to the title late fee of $15.

The transferor must present to the transferee before delivery of the vehicle, a written disclosure of odometer mileage by means of the certificate of title or a written statement signed by the transferor.

A dealer is required to apply to the Secretary of State for a new title and secure registration plates and certificate of title for the purchaser within 15 days after delivering the vehicle.

The certificate of title will contain a form for assignment of title or interest and warranty of title by the owner with space for the notation of a security interest in the vehicle, which at the time of a transfer must be certified and signed, and space for a written odometer mileage statement that is required upon transfer.

Minnesota

An effective transfer of title requires the owner to do the following: (1) execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee; (2) state the actual selling price of the vehicle in the space provided on the certificate; (3) complete, detach, and return to the Department the postcard on the certificate entitled notice of sale or transmit this information to the Department electronically in a form acceptable to the commissioner; (4) the transferor shall cause the certificate and assignment to be delivered to the transferee immediately.

To receive a new certificate, the transferee must fill out and execute the application for a new certificate of title and mail it to the Department within 10 days of the transfer.

If a security interest is reserved or created at the time of transfer, a notification of the security interest must be delivered or mailed to the person who becomes the secured party.

Montana

The transferor must sign the certificate of ownership in ink, and the signature must be acknowledged before the county treasurer or a notary public.

Within 20 days after endorsement, the transferee must forward the endorsed certificate of ownership, an odometer mileage statement, and the certificate of registration to the MVD. If the transferee fails to make the application within 20 days, the transferee is subject to a $10 fine.

Each seller of a motor vehicle must record an odometer reading on the certificate of ownership and a statement or certification that the odometer reading reflects the actual mileage, exceeds the mechanical limit, or differs from the actual mileage and should not be relied upon. Vehicles 10 years old and older are exempted from the odometer statement requirement.

If the transfer is by operation of law, the transferee must forward a verified or certified statement of the transfer of interest setting forth the reason for the involuntary transfer, the interest transferred, the name of the transferee, the process or procedure for the transfer, and other information requested by the MVD.

Nebraska

No person shall sell or otherwise dispose of a motor vehicle without delivering to the purchaser or transferee of such vehicle a certificate of title.

The transferor of any motor vehicle of an age of less than 10 years and equipped with an odometer by the manufacturer shall provide to the transferee a signed statement that the mileage shown on the odometer is accurate to the transferor’s best knowledge.

Nevada

Upon transfer of title, the person or persons whose title or interest is to be transferred and the transferee shall write their signatures with pen and ink upon the certificate of ownership issued for the vehicle, together with the residential and mailing address of the transferee in the appropriate spaces provided on the back of the certificate of ownership.

The transferee shall immediately apply for registration in any county, and shall pay the governmental services tax due.

New Hampshire

When a used vehicle is sold in New Hampshire, a New Hampshire title shall be signed over to the buyer at the time of the sale unless that vehicle is title exempt. For title exempt vehicles, the seller must provide a properly executed Bill of Sale along with either a current or expired certificate of registration or a valid in- or out-of-state certificate of title. The buyer shall apply for a new title in his or her name at the town/city clerk’s office and register the vehicle. A VIN verification may be required.

In an involuntary transfer, the transferee shall promptly mail or deliver to the DMV the last certificate of title, if available, proof of the transfer, and the application for a new certificate.

New Jersey

Upon the sale of a vehicle, the seller shall execute and deliver an assignment of the certificate of ownership to the purchaser.

New Mexico

Registration expires upon transfer of title. The previous owner must notify the MVD on the appropriate form provided by the MVD.

The owner must endorse an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title for such vehicle with a statement of all liens or encumbrances thereto and deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivering the vehicle.

The person making the transfer shall sign and record on the transfer document the actual mileage of the vehicle as indicated by the vehicle’s odometer at the time of transfer.

When the owner of a registered vehicle assigns title or interest in the vehicle, he or she shall remove and retain the registration plate from the vehicle, and within 30 days of the transfer, he or she shall either apply to have the registration number assigned to another vehicle of the same class or forward the plate back to the MVD.

The transferee must apply to the MVD for issuance of a new certificate of title and transfer of registration within 30 days from the date of transfer.

Any dealer, when transferring a new vehicle to the first purchaser, shall give the transferee the manufacturer’s certificate of origin.

New York

If an owner transfers his or her interest in a vehicle, the owner shall, at the time of delivery of the vehicle, execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee in the space provided therefore on the certificate of title.

The transferee shall, within 30 days after acquiring the vehicle, execute an application for a new certificate of title at the DMV.

North Carolina

In order to assign or transfer a title, the owner must execute, in the presence of a person authorized to administer oaths, an assignment and warranty of title on the reverse of the certificate of title. The form on the back of the title shall include the name and address of the transferee.

Any person transferring title or interest in a motor vehicle shall deliver the certificate of title to the transferee at the time of delivery of the vehicle. If there is a security interest, the transferor shall deliver the certificate of title to the lienholder and the lienholder shall forward the certificate of title together with the transferee’s application for new title and necessary fees to the DMV within 20 days.

A transferee must apply to the DMV for a new certificate of title within 28 days of the transfer.

North Dakota

The seller of a vehicle must endorse an assignment and warranty of title and include the name of the purchaser and the selling price of the vehicle before delivering the certificate of title to the purchaser.

The purchaser of a vehicle must present the endorsed and assigned certificate to the DOT within 30 days of receipt and make application for a new certificate of title.

Ohio

The title must be transferred to the new owner upon delivery of the vehicle. It is illegal to buy, sell, or operate any vehicle without a certificate of title.

If a person who is not an electronic motor vehicle dealer owns a vehicle for which a physical certificate of title has not been issued by a clerk of a court of common pleas and the person sells the vehicle to a person who is not a licensed motor vehicle dealer, the person shall obtain a physical certificate of title to the vehicle in order to transfer ownership of the vehicle to that person.

In a case in which an electronic certificate of title has been issued and either the buyer or seller is an electronic motor vehicle dealer, the dealer may inform a clerk of a court of common pleas via electronic means of the sale and assignment of ownership of the vehicle. The clerk shall enter the information relating to the assignment into the automated title processing system, and ownership passes to the applicant when the clerk enters this information into the system. The dealer is not required to obtain a physical certificate of title to the vehicle in the dealer’s name.

In all cases of transfer of a motor vehicle, other than the sale of a motor vehicle to a general buyer by a dealer, the application for certificate of title must be filed within 30 days after the assignment or delivery of the motor vehicle.

In the case of the sale of a motor vehicle to a general buyer or user by a dealer, the certificate of title shall be obtained in the name of the buyer by the dealer, leasing dealer, or the manufactured home broker, as the case may be, upon application signed by the buyer. The certificate of title shall be issued within 5 business days after the application for title is filed with the clerk. In all other cases such certificates shall be obtained by the buyer.

If a certificate of title has not previously been issued for the motor vehicle in this state, the application shall be accompanied by a manufacturer’s or importer’s certificate or by a certificate of title of another state from which the motor vehicle came.

Oklahoma

A transferor must provide to the transferee a properly assigned certificate of title and, when applicable, an odometer disclosure statement. On the odometer disclosure, the transferor shall certify one of the following: that the odometer reading reflects the actual mileage; the odometer reading does not reflect the actual mileage; or the mileage is in excess of the mechanical limits of the odometer.

The following vehicles are exempted from the odometer disclosure statement: vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of more than 16,000 lbs.; a vehicle that is not self-propelled; a vehicle at least 10 years old; a vehicle sold by the manufacturer to any agency of the United States; or a new motor vehicle prior to its transfer to the first retail purchaser.

When transferring ownership of a vehicle, the transferor shall endorse on the back of the title a complete assignment with warranty of title, and a statement of all liens or encumbrances on the vehicle, sworn before a notary public, and must deliver the title to the transferee at the time of delivery of the vehicle.

Within 30 days of the delivery of the vehicle, the transferee shall present the assigned certificate of title and the insurance security verification to the Tax Commission or a motor license agent, along with the required fees and any taxes due.

Oregon

Upon the transfer of any interest in a vehicle, the transferee must submit an application for title to the DMV within 30 days of the transfer of interest. This provision does not apply if the change involves only a change in the security interest when the security interest holder or lessor is a bank or financial institution, the vehicle is transferred to a vehicle dealer, the vehicle is to be titled in another jurisdiction, or the vehicle has been destroyed.

Upon the transfer of interest in a vehicle, the transferor must notify the DMV within 10 days of the transfer.

Upon the transfer of interest in a vehicle, the transferor must also submit an odometer disclosure statement to the transferee, and both parties must sign the statement. This provision does not apply to a vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) rating of more than 16,000 lbs., a vehicle that is not self-propelled, a vehicle that is at least 10 years old, or a vehicle sold directly by the manufacturer to any agency of the United States.

Pennsylvania

The transferee must within 10 days of the assignment or reassignment of the certificate of title, apply for a new title.

Along with the application, the owner must execute a notarized assignment and warranty of title to the transferee in the space provided on the certificate of title.

The application must be accompanied by the certificate of title and all appropriate fees and any taxes required by the Department.

If the vehicle was previously titled or registered in another state, the following information must be included with the application: (1) the certificate of title issued by the state or county; (2) a tracing of the vehicle identification number; and (3) any other information or documentation the Department might request.

If the Department is not satisfied about the ownership of a vehicle the Department may register the vehicle but shall withhold issuance of a certificate of title until the applicant submits the documents which the Department deems necessary to issue the title.

Rhode Island

Upon transfer of interest in a vehicle, at the time of the delivery of the vehicle, the owner must execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee. The transferee must then promptly execute the application for a new certificate of title.

South Carolina

Whenever an owner transfers his ownership in a motor vehicle, he or she must immediately notify the Department in writing of the transfer by providing the Department with the name and address of the new owner and the date of transfer.

Whenever any person purchases a vehicle which was registered in South Carolina, the person receiving the vehicle must make an application with the Department for the transfer of the vehicle within 30 days of the date of transfer.

South Dakota

A motor vehicle cannot be sold without delivering the purchaser or transferee a certificate of title indicating the date that the vehicle was purchased.

The certificate of title can be transferred by completing the certificate.

Once the certificate has been completed and approved by the Department, the Department must issue the owner a new certificate of title. This new certificate of title will list all of the unreleased liens, if any on the vehicle. All lienholders will be mailed notification of their security interest.

A damage disclosure statement must be submitted when transferring a titled car from another state.

Tennessee

In order for a transfer to be effective, the owner must endorse an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title with a statement of all liens and encumbrances on the vehicle and must deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivery of the vehicle.

The transferee must apply for and obtain a registration and a certificate of title before the vehicle may be operated on the highways.

Texas

The owner of a vehicle must transfer the certificate of title to the new owner at the time of the sale. At the time of transfer there may be no liens on the vehicle except those shown on the certificate of title.

The seller of a motor vehicle must provide the buyer with the vehicle’s odometer reading on a DMV form for that purpose. However, an odometer disclosure statement is not required for the sale of a motor vehicle that is new, is 10 or more years old, is not self-propelled, or has a manufacturer’s rated carrying capacity of more than 2 tons.

A person, whether acting for that person or another, may not sell, trade, or otherwise transfer a used vehicle required to be registered under the law of Texas unless at the time of delivery the vehicle is registered in the state.

The buyer or transferee of a vehicle must file the certificate of title with the county assessor-collector within 30 days of taking delivery of the vehicle and the documents.

The period for active duty military or members of the reserves is 60 days.

Utah

The transferee, before operating or permitting the operation of a transferred vehicle on a highway, shall present to the DMV the certificate of registration and the certificate of title, properly endorsed, and shall apply for a new certificate of title and obtain a new registration for the transferred vehicle.

At the time of any sale or transfer of a motor vehicle, the transferor shall furnish to the transferee a written odometer disclosure statement in a form prescribed by the DMV, usually on the face of the certificate of title issued to the transferor. This statement shall be signed and certified as to its truthfulness by the transferor, stating: the date of the transfer; the transferor’s name and address; the transferee’s name and address; the identity of the motor vehicle, including its make, model, year, body type, and identification number; the odometer reading at the time of the transfer; and that to the best of the transferor’s knowledge, the odometer reading reflects the amount of miles the vehicle has actually been driven or a warning if the transferor knows of a discrepancy. Each transferor and transferee shall acknowledge receipt of the odometer disclosure statement by signing it.

A person may not sell, offer for sale, or display for sale or exchange any vehicle or vessel unless the person is licensed under the Motor Vehicle Business Regulation Act; a motor vehicle auctioneer or holder of a statutory lien on the vehicle who is selling the vehicle through a motor vehicle auction; the lienholder or owner of the vehicle as evidenced by the person’s name being printed by the division on the certificate of title; has lawfully repossessed the vehicle; is lawfully donating the vehicle to a non-profit charitable organization or a non-profit that receives, sells or disposes donated vehicles; or a person lawfully selling the person’s immediate family member’s vehicle. Does not apply to a personal representative, trustee, guardian, executor, administrator, sheriff, government entity, or other person who sells a vehicle under the powers and duties granted or imposed by law.

All other new owners shall title a vehicle by completing an application and presenting to the DMV a properly endorsed certificate of title, duplicate certificate of title, or other document of authority along with any additional documents the division may require to transfer the title.

Vermont

Upon the transfer of ownership of any registered motor vehicle its registration shall expire. The person in whose name the transferred vehicle was registered shall immediately return the registration certificate assigned to the transferred vehicle, with the date of sale and the name and residence of the new owner endorsed on the back.

Virginia

When transferring or assigning a title or interest, transferor must fully and correctly endorse the assignment on the certificate of title to its purchaser, with a statement of all security interests on it, and shall deliver the certificate to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivery.

The transferee shall write his or her name and address in ink on the certificate of title and must within 30 days forward the certificate to the DMV with an application for the registration of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and for a certificate of title.

Every owner or transferor of any motor vehicle, including a dealer, shall, at the time of transfer of ownership of any motor vehicle by him or her, record on the certificate of title, if one is currently issued on the vehicle in the Commonwealth, and on any application for certificate of title, the reading on the odometer or similar device plus any known additional distance traveled not shown by the odometer or similar device of the motor vehicle at the time of transfer.

The registration card contains forms for providing notice to the DMV of a transfer of the ownership of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer.

It is illegal to sell, trade, or offer to sell or trade any vehicle without an accompanying certificate of title issued to its owner.

Washington

If an owner transfers his or her interest in a vehicle, other than by the creation, deletion, or change of a security interest, the owner must, at the time of the delivery of the vehicle, execute an assignment to the transferee and provide an odometer disclosure statement, and deliver the certificate and assignment to the buyer or transferee. The seller must notify the DOL of the date of the sale or transfer, the name and address of the buyer, the buyer’s driver’s license number if available, and a description of the vehicle including the VIN or the license plate number or both. The seller must file the notice within 5 business days of the transfer.

The new owner must apply for a new certificate of ownership within 15 days after delivery of the vehicle.

An odometer disclosure statement must accompany every application for a certificate of ownership unless the vehicle has a declared Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of more than 16,000 lbs., the vehicle is not self-propelled, the vehicle is 10 years old or older, the vehicle is sold directly by a manufacturer to a federal agency, or the vehicle is a new vehicle before its first retail sale.

West Virginia

Certificates of title remain valid until the transfer of any interest in the vehicle.

When the owner of a registered vehicle assigns or transfers the vehicle title, or interest, the registration of the vehicle expires.

When the owner of a registered vehicle assigns or transfers the vehicle title or interest, the owner must endorse an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title for the vehicle with a statement regarding all liens and encumbrances. Within 60 days of the sale, the owner must deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee.

When the transferee of a vehicle is a dealer, the dealer is not required to obtain a new registration of the vehicle until the dealer transfers the title or interest to another. Upon transfer, the dealer must execute and acknowledge an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title, and deliver the title not later than 60 days from the date of sale.

When the title or interest of a vehicle passes to another other than by a voluntary transfer, the registration expires and the vehicle may not be operated upon the highway unless and until the person entitled to the operation of the vehicle applies for and obtains a registration. The exception to this requirement is that the person in possession of the vehicle or the legal representative may operate the vehicle on the highway for a distance not to exceed 75 miles, or to transport the vehicle to a garage or warehouse for purposes of demonstrating or selling the vehicle.

Wisconsin

The DOT will refuse to issue a certificate of title if the applicant has failed to furnish the mileage disclosure form from the most recent titled owner and of all subsequent non-titled owners.

The owner of a vehicle that is being transferred must execute an assignment and warranty of title to the transferee at the time of delivery of the vehicle and must mail or deliver the certificate to the transferee.

The transferee must promptly execute an application for a new certificate of title once the vehicle has been delivered to him or her.

No transferor may transfer ownership of a motor vehicle without disclosing the vehicle’s mileage in writing to the transferee by specifying the odometer reading.

Mopeds, vehicles that are 10 years old or older, and vehicles with a gross vehicle weight (GVW) rating of more than 16,000 lbs. are exempted from the odometer disclosure requirements.

Wyoming

The seller or transferor must endorse an assignment of warranty of title on the certificate of title with a statement of all liens and encumbrances. The endorsement must be notarized, and the seller must deliver the certificate of title to the buyer or transferee at the time the vehicle is delivered.

The transferee must present in person or electronically the certificate of title to a county clerk and apply for a new certificate of title within 45 days.

The transferee is not required to deliver the certificate of title with the application if he delivers a signed, notarized bill of sale from the transferor with a description of the vehicle, including VIN, the name of the transferor, and a promise from the transferor to deliver a properly executed title free of all liens unless otherwise specified in the bill of sale.

If the transfer is by operation of law, the transferee must include a verified or certified statement of the transfer of interest with the application.

Puerto Rico

Transfer requires signature or mark of both vehicle owner and acquirer.

Execution of transfer noted on back of motor vehicle or tow truck license, and on title certificate.

Transfer must include (1) statement verifying owner’s will to transfer and acquirer’s acceptance of property; and (2) address of acquirer.

When motor vehicle distributor or dealer takes used units for purposes of down payment, transfer occurs through the signing of a sworn statement by distributor or dealer, provided owner has stated will to transfer or has transferred by placing signature on back of license and certificate of title. Sworn statement requires (1) date of transfer; (2) name and address of previous owner; (3) means of identification; and (4) detailed description of vehicle.

Once transfer is executed, it must be filed within 10 days.


Canada

Alberta

When the ownership of a registered vehicle is transferred to another person by an act of the owner or by operation of law, the registration of the vehicle expires and the registered owner must remove the plates from the vehicle and retain.

British Columbia

(see Vehicle Registration)

Manitoba

(see Vehicle Registration)

New Brunswick

When the owner of a registered vehicle transfers or assigns interest and the possession of a vehicle to another, the owner must sign the application for transfer and endorse the name and address of the transferee or assignee, and the date of transfer upon the reverse side of the registration certificate. This certificate must be forwarded to the Registrar of Motor Vehicles (Registrar).

Before operating of a vehicle, the transferee or assignee must apply for a transfer of registration.

When the title or interest in a motor vehicle transfers from the owner to another, except for by voluntary transfer or death, the vehicle may only be operated as necessary to the residence or place of business of the person entitled to the vehicle, or to the garage, if it does not exceed a distance of 120 km, unless the person is entitled to the possession applies and obtains a new registration.

Every dealer or manufacturer upon transferring a vehicle by sale, lease, or otherwise to a person, except to another manufacturer or dealer, must give written notice to the Registrar of the transfer date, the name and address of the transferor and transferee, and a description of the vehicle.

Newfoundland and Labrador

The seller is required to notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles (Registrar) within 10 days of the sale

To transfer ownership, a seller must have the following documents: the seller’s vehicle registration permit, a bill of sale and/or a sworn affidavit, a completed signed insurance declaration, and a motor vehicle safety inspection report.

A notice of vehicle sale must be filed with the Registrar within 10 days of the date of sale of a vehicle and may be sent to any Motor Registration Office in the province.

Northwest Territories

When a person purchases or acquires a motor vehicle already registered in the Territories, the person has 30 days to obtain a new certificate of registration.

Where a certificate of registration expires and the person named in the expired certificate has transferred ownership of the motor vehicle by a voluntary act, the person named in the expired certificate shall immediately remove the license plate attached to the motor vehicle, and sign the notice of transfer on the certificate of registration for the motor vehicle and give this notice to the new owner; and the new owner shall, within 10 days of becoming the owner, submit the notice of transfer to the RSLD.

Nova Scotia

(see Vehicle Registration)

Nunavut

Where a certificate of registration expires and the person named in the expired certificate has transferred ownership of the motor vehicle by a voluntary act, the person named in the expired certificate shall immediately remove the license plate attached to the motor vehicle, and sign the notice of transfer on the certificate of registration for the motor vehicle and give this notice to the new owner. The new owner shall, within 10 days of becoming the owner, submit the notice of transfer to the Registrar.

Ontario

When the owner or lessee of a vehicle transfers ownership or ceases to lease the vehicle, the owner or lessee must remove the number plates from the vehicle and complete and sign the transfer application on the permit. The permit must be delivered to the new owner or the lessor with the vehicle.

Every new owner of a motor vehicle or trailer must apply for a new permit within 6 days.

Every person who sells or transfers a used motor vehicle must obtain a used vehicle information package from the MTO and deliver that package to the buyer or transferee at the same time as delivery of the vehicle. The purchaser or transferee must deliver the used vehicle information package to the MTO before applying for a new permit.

Prince Edward Island

(see Vehicle Registration)

Quebec

(see Vehicle Registration)

Saskatchewan

(see Vehicle Registration)

Yukon

When the ownership of a registered vehicle passes from the registered owner to any other person, whether by an act of the owner or by operation of law, the registration of the vehicle expires at the time of transfer.