Liability Laws (Click here for Canada)

United States

Alabama

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $250 or personal injury or death. Minimum required coverage is $25,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person in 1 accident; $50,000 for 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury or destruction of property in 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law.

Alaska

Mandatory insurance law applies to all accidents involving death, injury, or more than $500 damage to property of any 1 person. Minimum financial responsibility limits:

  • $50,000 due to bodily injury or death of 1 person in 1 accident.
  • $100,000 due to bodily injury or death of 2 or more persons in 1 accident.
  • $25,000 due to injury to or destruction of property of others in 1 accident.

Alaska has a non-resident service of process law.

Arizona

Minimum $15,000 financial responsibility for any 1 person in 1 accident, $30,000 for any 2 people in 1 accident; $10,000 for property destruction in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law. Does not have guest suit law.

Arkansas

Security-type law is applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death. Minimum financial responsibility limits are the following: $25,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person in 1 accident; $50,000 for bodily injury or death of 2 or more persons in 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in 1 accident.

State has “add-on” no-fault insurance law.

Sale is mandatory, but purchase is optional.

Benefits, medical, and hospital, $5,000.

Wage loss, 70%; up to $140/week (8-day waiting period, maximum 52 weeks).

Essential services up to $70/week (8-day waiting period, maximum 52 weeks).

Accidental death, $5,000.

California

Financial responsibility is required of every driver and owner of a motor vehicle at all times. Low cost auto policies are available in every county of the state for qualified low income persons.  The cost differs depending on the county.

Every driver and every owner of a motor vehicle must carry evidence of financial responsibility in their motor vehicle at all times and be ready to present such evidence at the demand of a peace officer; failure to comply carries a fine between $100 and $200, plus additional assessment penalties, for the 1st infraction and a fine between $200 and $500, plus additional assessment penalties, for any subsequent infraction within 3 years of the 1st.

Minimum liability insurance coverage must be at least $15,000 for bodily injury or death of each person as a result of any 1 accident and $30,000 for bodily or injury or death of all persons as a result of any 1 accident and at least $5,000 for damage to property as a result of any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law. Guest may sue driver.

Colorado

Colorado has a fault-based or tort system of insurance. Sale and purchase mandatory. Motorists required to carry evidence of insurance at all times. Minimum amount of coverage required: $25,000 per person for bodily injury, $50,000 per accident for bodily injury and $15,000 per accident for property.

Connecticut

Compulsory liability insurance.

No owner of any motor vehicle may operate the vehicle without automobile insurance.

Minimum insurance coverage: $20,000 for injury to 1 person, $40,000 for injuries to more than 1 person, and $10,000 for damage to property.

Motorcycles are required to maintain the same levels of insurance.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Delaware

State has security-type law. All vehicles registered in the state are required to have the minimum liability insurance coverage of $15,000 for any 1 person injured in an accident; $30,000 for all persons injured in any 1 accident; or $10,000 for the property damage which may be done by any 1 accident.

State has add-on, no-fault insurance law. Sale mandatory. Benefits, $15,000 per person, $30,000 per accident; covers medical, loss of income, loss of services, and funeral ($3,000 limit).

No limit on tort actions except benefits received cannot be used as evidence in suits for general damages. Non-residents are covered as pedestrians or guest passengers in insured vehicles.

State has non-resident service of process law.

District of Columbia

Compulsory motor vehicle insurance.

The minimum insurance coverage required is $25,000 for injury to any 1 person, $50,000 for injury to more than 1 person, and $10,000 for personal property damage.

The District has a non-resident service of process law, which allows a person to serve papers against a non-resident with the District for any action that arises out of the non-resident’s use of a vehicle while in the District.

Florida

No fault law requires anyone who owns or has registered a motor vehicle with 4 or more wheels (excluding taxis and limos), that has been in the state for at least 90 days of the past 365 to have the following coverage. All drivers are required to have insurance policies of at least $10,000 for an individual’s bodily injury; $20,000 for injury to multiple persons; $10,000 for property damage; and a $30,000 minimum per accident.

Georgia

Compulsory liability insurance law. Owners of motor vehicles must provide proof of liability insurance at the time they apply for registration. Insurance coverage must be submitted electronically by insurance companies to the Georgia Department of Revenue. Exceptions: (1) vehicles covered under a commercial vehicle policy may continue to use an insurance card; (2) if a policy was provided in the last 30 days a written binder agreement is sufficient; (3) a rental car agreement provides proof of insurance; and (4) if a driver can prove that he or she bought the car within the last 30 days then a written declaration of coverage for another motor vehicle is good proof of insurance.

Drivers must keep proof of minimum insurance coverage in vehicle.

All motor vehicle insurance policies issued in the state must provide coverage for damage for liability on account of accidents of not less than $25,000 because of bodily injury or death of 1 person in any 1 accident, to a limit of not less than $50,000 because of bodily injury or death to 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $25,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service process of law and limit on liability to injured guests.

Hawaii

It is unlawful to operate a motor vehicle, motorcycle, or motor scooter unless it is insured at all times.

Hawaii has a no-fault insurance law. The minimum liability policy coverage is $20,000 per person with an aggregate limit of $40,000 per accident and $10,000 for all damages to or destruction of property.

A valid motor vehicle or liability insurance identification card must be in the possession of the driver of a vehicle at all times and must be presented when requested by a peace officer.

State does not have non-resident service of process law, but non-residents may be served when in state; does not have guest suit law.

Idaho

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $500 or personal injury or death; no judgment minimum. Applicant must certify that vehicle is covered by automobile liability insurance at the time of registration. Certificate of liability insurance must be carried in vehicle or on person.

State has non-resident service of process law. Guest suit law has been declared unconstitutional. Release of liability statements must be completed by the owner of a motor vehicle upon sale of the vehicle to another party. The statements are to be mailed to the Department of Transportation along with a $3.50 filing fee.

Minimum required coverage is $25,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person in 1 accident; $50,000 for 2 or more persons in 1 accident; $15,000 for injury or destruction of property in 1 accident.

A motor vehicle owner may choose to post an indemnity bond in lieu of a liability insurance policy. The bond must guarantee payment of no less than $50,000 for any 1 accident, of which $15,000 is for property damage, for each vehicle registered, up to a maximum of $120,000 for 5 or more registered vehicles.

Illinois

Has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing damage to property of 1 person in excess of $500 or personal injury or death; no judgment minimum. Proof of financial responsibility is required at all times. There is a fine for driving without such proof.

A minimum policy of $20,000 is required for bodily injury or death to any 1 person in 1 accident; a minimum of $40,000 for any 2 or more people in 1 accident; and a minimum of $15,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in 1 accident.  (Effective January 1, 2015, a minimum policy of $25,000 is required for bodily injury or death to any 1 person in 1 accident; a minimum of $50,000 for any 2 or more people in 1 accident; and a minimum of $20,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in 1 accident)

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law (applicable to hitchhikers only).

Indiana

Every driver and every owner of a motor vehicle must have evidence of continuous financial responsibility. Failure to comply can result in the suspension of the person’s current driver’s license or vehicle registration or both.

The required minimum amounts of financial responsibility are $25,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 1 individual, $50,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 2 or more individuals in any 1 accident, and $10,000 for damage to property in 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law.

Iowa

Has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death. A person may not drive a motor vehicle on the highways of the state unless the driver has proof of financial liability coverage for the vehicle.

Liability coverage must be a minimum of $20,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person in any 1 accident, $40,000 for bodily injury or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $15,000 for damage to or destruction of property in 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law.

Kansas

Kansas has a non-resident service of process law.

Kansas has a no-fault insurance law.

The minimum insurance coverage required is $25,000 for injury to any 1 person, $50,000 for injury to more than 1 person, and $10,000 for personal property damage.

Kentucky

Kentucky has no-fault and mandatory liability insurance law.

Evidence of liability insurance must be kept within the vehicle.

The minimum liability policy coverage is $25,000 per person with an aggregate limit of $50,000 per accident and $10,000 for all damages to or destruction of property.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Louisiana

Motor vehicle operators must carry a motor vehicle liability policy in their car at all times.

Minimum liability insurance coverage must be at least $15,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person, $30,000 for the bodily injury to 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and at least $25,000 for damage to property as a result of any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Maine

Insurance or a bond covering the vehicle is required.

Minimum insurance requirements for passenger vehicles are $50,000 for injury to or death of any 1 person, $100,000 for 1 accident resulting in injury to or death of more than 1 person, and $25,000 for property damage.

Minimum insurance requirements for other vehicles are: (1) $350,000 combined single limit for rental vehicles, emergency vehicles and for-hire vehicles transporting freight or merchandise but not passengers; (2) for vehicles for hire used to transport passengers within the state, but not defined as school buses, there is a combined single limit of: (a) $125,000, or split limits of $50,000 per person and $100,000 per occurrence for bodily injury, and $25,000 for property damage for vehicles not under contract with the state, a municipality, or a school district for the transportation of students that are designed to carry no more than 3 passengers behind the driver’s seat; (b) $300,000 for vehicles that are designed to carry 4-7 passengers behind the driver’s seat, including vehicles under contract with the state, a municipality, or a school district for the transportation of students; (c) $750,000 for vehicles that are designed to carry 8-15 passengers behind the driver’s seat; (d) $1,500,000 for vehicles that are designed to carry 16-30 passengers behind the driver’s seat; and (e) $2,000,000 for vehicles that are designed to carry 31 or more passengers behind the driver’s seat; (3) for vehicles for hire used to transport passengers between points in the state, but not defined as school buses, under contract with the state, municipality, or school district, or for transportation of students, there is a combined single limit of: (a) $1,500,000 for vehicles with 15 or fewer passengers, and (b) $5,000,000 for vehicles with 16 or more passengers; (4) for school buses there is a combined single limit of: (a) $500,000 for buses with up to 30 passengers, and (b) $1,000,000 for buses with 31 or more passengers; (5) for rental trucks with registered gross weight of 26,000 lbs. or less, rented or leased for fewer than 30 days: (a) there is a combined single limit of $125,000; or (b) there is a split limit of $50,000 per person or $100,000 per occurrence for bodily injury and $25,000 for property damage.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Maryland

Compulsory liability minimum $30,000/60,000/15,000, and uninsured motorist coverage in like amounts. Unless waived by insured, policy shall provide no-fault coverage for medical, hospital, and disability benefits up to $2,500. General damages: no limit.

Liability insurance coverage is required at all times. Registration plates must be returned to the MVA immediately after cancellation of insurance or transfer of ownership of the vehicle. MVA monitors vehicle insurance status through several enforcement programs. If a vehicle owner is involved in an enforcement program, they must submit verification of their liability insurance to MVA upon request or face suspension of current and future registration privileges. Monetary penalties up to $2,500 per year are also imposed if vehicle is found to be uninsured.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Massachusetts

All drivers are required to have insurance policies of at least $20,000 for an individual’s bodily injury; $40,000 for injury to multiple persons; and $5,000 for property damage.

Policy must cover any person operating vehicle with owner’s express or implied consent.

State has non-resident service of process law.

State has no-fault, personal injury insurance law. Sale and purchase mandatory. Benefits: medical, funeral, wage loss, and substitute service up to $8,000; wage loss limited to 75% of actual loss. General damages: recover if medical costs exceed $2,000 or in case of death, loss of all or part of body member, permanent and serious disfigurement, loss of sight or hearing, or a fracture.

Michigan

State has no-fault insurance law. Sale and purchase are mandatory. Motorist must show proof of insurance at request of law enforcement officer. Benefits: medical and hospital, unlimited; funeral up to $2,500; wage loss $4,070 per month for maximum of 36 months; replacement services $20/day payable to victim or survivor. General damages: cannot recover from an insured motorist unless injuries result in death, serious impairment of body function, permanent serious disfigurement. The benefits available to nonresidents may depend on whether insurer of non¬resident vehicle has filed certificate of no-fault protection. Insurance is compulsory for non-resident vehicle if in state for an aggregate of more than 30 days in any calendar year.

Minimum insurance requirements are $20,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident; $40,000 for bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $10,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

Proof of financial responsibility must be furnished by filing with the Secretary of State a written certificate of any insurance carrier duly authorized to do business in this state, certifying that there is in effect a motor vehicle liability policy for the benefit of the registration applicant.

Minnesota

State has compulsory/mandatory liability and no-fault insurance proof. State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Every driver and every owner of a motor vehicle must carry evidence of financial responsibility in his or her motor vehicle at all times and be ready to present such evidence at the demand of a police officer.

Minimum liability insurance coverage must be at least $30,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person as a result of any 1 accident, $60,000 as a result of injury to 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $10,000 if the accident has resulted in injury to or destruction of property, or $70,000 single incident.

Mississippi

State has security and future proof type law. Minimum required coverage is $25,000 for bodily injury or death of 1 person in 1 accident; $50,000 for 2 or more persons in 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury or destruction of property in 1 accident.

A motor vehicle owner may choose to post an indemnity bond in lieu of a liability insurance policy. The bond must guarantee payments in amounts and under the same circumstances as required in a motor vehicle liability policy.

A motor vehicle owner may choose, in lieu of a liability policy or posting a bond, to deposit cash or securities in the amount of $15,000 to the State Treasurer to satisfy proof of financial responsibility.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Missouri

No owner of a motor vehicle registered in this state, or required to be registered in this state, may operate, register, or maintain registration of a motor vehicle, or permit another person to operate the vehicle, unless the owner maintains the required liability coverage.

An insurance identification card shall be carried in the insured motor vehicle at all times. A motor vehicle liability insurance policy, a motor vehicle liability insurance binder, or receipt which contains the policy information is satisfactory evidence of insurance in lieu of an insurance identification card.

A motor vehicle liability policy must insure the person named in the policy and any other person using the vehicle or vehicles with the express or implied permission of the named insured against liability for damages arising from the ownership or use of the vehicle in the amount of $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident and, subject to the limit for 1 person, $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $10,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

Montana

An owner of a motor vehicle that is registered and operated in Montana by the owner or with the owner’s permission must continuously provide insurance against loss resulting from liability imposed by law.

A policy must provide minimum coverage of: (1) $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident and subject to that limit for 1 person; (2) $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and (3) $10,000 because of injury to or destruction of property to others in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Nebraska

State has future proof law. Proof of coverage required at all times. Violators may be charged with a class II misdemeanor.

Any person operating a motor vehicle must have liability insurance with the following minimum coverage: $25,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person in 1 accident; $50,000 for bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have a guest suit law.

Nevada

State has mandatory public liability and property insurance law. Driving without liability insurance is punishable as a misdemeanor. Evidence of insurance must be carried in the motor vehicle.

Every owner of a motor vehicle registered in Nevada must have the following insurance coverage for as long as the vehicle is registered: $15,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 1 person in any 1 accident; $30,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $10,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

State has future proof-type law applicable in event of an accident causing property damage in excess of $750, or personal injury or death.

State has non-resident service of process law.

Nevada has no grace period for liability coverage. A one day lapse in your insurance coverage will result in a possible suspension of your registration. The minimum penalty is a $250 reinstatement fee.

New Hampshire

State has security-type law applicable in the event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury death.

State also has future proof law requiring motorists to show financial responsibility after conviction of certain serious traffic offenses.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

All drivers are required to have insurance liability policies of at least $25,000 for bodily injury or death to any 1 person, $50,000 for bodily injury or death to 2 or more persons, and $25,000 for injury to and destruction of property in any 1 accident.

New Jersey

All vehicles registered in New Jersey must be covered by an automobile liability insurance policy that insures against loss resulting from liability for bodily injury, death, and property damage where coverage amounts shall be at least: (1) $15,000 for injury or death of 1 person in any 1 accident; (2) $30,000 on account of injury to or death of more than 1 person in any 1 accident; and (3) $5,000 from property damage in any 1 accident.

A person with an automobile registered in New Jersey may choose a basic automobile insurance policy, as an alternative to the mandatory coverage, that provides the following coverage: (1) personal injury protection coverage that includes the payment of medical expense benefits for reasonable and necessary treatment of bodily injury in an amount not to exceed $15,000 per person per accident, except that, medical expense benefits shall be paid in an amount not to exceed $250,000 for all medically necessary treatment of permanent or significant brain injury, spinal cord injury or disfigurement, or for medically necessary treatment of other permanent or significant injuries rendered at a trauma center or acute care hospital; (2) $5,000 for property damage in any 1 accident, and (3) the option of $10,000 for injury to or death of 1 or more persons in any 1 accident.

Every standard automobile liability insurance policy issued or renewed shall contain personal injury protection benefits for the payment of benefits without regard to negligence, liability, or fault to the insured and members of his family residing in his house who sustain bodily injury as a result of an accident, or as a pedestrian, caused by an automobile or an object propelled by or from an automobile, to other persons sustaining injury while occupying the automobile with permission of the insured, and to pedestrians sustaining bodily injury caused by the insured’s vehicle or by an object propelled by or from that vehicle.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

State has no-fault insurance law.

New Mexico

The MVD will not issue or renew the registration for any motor vehicle not covered by a motor vehicle insurance policy or by evidence of financial responsibility currently valid meeting the requirements of the laws of New Mexico.

State has compulsory/mandatory liability law applicable in event of accident causing death, personal injury, or property damage exceeding $500, which results in judgment. Driver loses license if unsatisfied judgment. Proof of coverage is required at all times. Noncompliance could result in $300 fine.

Minimum liability: $25,000 bodily injury or death to any 1 person; $50,000 bodily injury or death to any 2 persons; $10,000 for injury or destruction of property.

Evidence of financial responsibility is required to be carried in a motor vehicle and shall be executed by the owner or operator’s insurer, surety, or the New Mexico State Treasurer.

New York

State has compulsory no-fault insurance law. Sale and purchase are mandatory. State provides benefits up to a limit of $50,000 per person to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians injured in a motor vehicle accident occurring in this state. Benefits include all reasonable and necessary medical and rehabilitation expenses; wage loss up to 80% of lost earnings, maximum $2,000 per month for 3 years; substitute service $25 per day up to 1 year.

Proof of financial security is required for every motor vehicle registered.

The minimum amounts of financial security required are $25,000 because of bodily injury to or $50,000 because of the death of any 1 person in an accident, $50,000 because of bodily damage to or $100,000 because of the death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $10,000 because of injury to or destruction to property in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law; it does not have guest suit law.

Proof of insurance coverage for New York registered vehicles required. Insurance ID card must be kept with the vehicle to which it applies and it must be produced upon request to any police officer or to any person with whom an accident has occurred. Failure to produce an ID card when required can result in a charge of uninsured operation. Uninsured operation can result in revocation of license and registration privileges.

North Carolina

The minimum liability insurance coverage for a vehicle is $30,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person; $60,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 or more persons; and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

Vehicle owners are also required to maintain insurance for the protection of persons entitled to recover damages from owners or operators of uninsured drivers and hit-and-run accidents in amount equal to the highest limits of property damage liability coverage, not to exceed $1,000,000 per person and per accident.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Waives civil penalties and restoration fees for any deployed military personnel whose motor vehicle liability insurance lapsed during the period of deployment or within 90 days after the military member returned to the state. The military member must certify to the DMV that the motor vehicle was not driven on the highway by anyone during the period in which the motor vehicle was uninsured and that the owner now has liability insurance on the motor vehicle.

North Dakota

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death; on judgment minimum. Unsatisfied Judgment Fund Law: applicable to uncollectible judgments exceeding $300.

State has no-fault insurance law, which is compulsory. Benefits: Economic loss up to $20,000. Uninsured motorists’ coverage: $25,000/$50,000.

Proof of coverage is required at all times.

State has non-resident service of process law.

A person may not drive or operate a motor vehicle that does not have a valid policy of liability insurance.

Liability insurance must be in the amount of $25,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident, $50,000 for bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property in any 1 accident.

In lieu of an insurance policy, a person may also provide a bond or certificate of deposit of money or securities as proof of financial responsibility.

Ohio

Has compulsory/mandatory liability which prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle unless financial responsibility is maintained. Applicant for a motor vehicle registration or driver’s license is required to sign a statement that he or she maintains financial responsibility.

Proof of financial responsibility to be provided whenever a police officer issues a traffic ticket, at all vehicle inspection stops, upon every traffic court appearance upon written request by the BMV, and for every motor vehicle crash causing property damage in excess of $400 or personal injury or death.

Proof of ability to respond in damages for liability, arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle must be obtained in the amounts of $12,500 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident, $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and $7,500 because of injury to property of others in any 1 accident.  Beginning November 27, 2013, these amounts will increase to $25,000/$50,000/$25,000. 

State has non-resident service of process law.

Oklahoma

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $300 or personal injury or death.

The minimum liability coverage limits for a motor vehicle are $25,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident; $50,000 for bodily injury to or death of more than 1 person in any 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

Applicants for license plates must certify that liability insurance is in effect or deposit a bond of $75,000 or cash of $75,000. Failure to maintain liability insurance bond or security on currently licensed vehicles will cause suspension of license plates and vehicle registration.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Oregon

State has future-proof law for uninsured accidents.

Antique motor vehicles that have been issued a permanent registration, farm trailers, farm tractors, Class I or III all-terrain vehicles, special interest vehicles, and implements of husbandry need not comply with the liability provisions.

The minimum liability policy coverage is $25,000 per person with an aggregate limit of $50,000 per accident and $20,000 for all damages to or destruction of property. Requires equal liability coverage for each family member of the insured in the same household.

If a person has been convicted of driving under the influence, the minimum insurance coverage is elevated to $50,000 per person with an aggregate limit of $100,000 per accident.

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law. Mandatory 1 year license suspension for involvement in an uninsured accident.

State has “add-on,” no-fault insurance law. Sale and purchase mandatory. Benefits: Medical $10,000; 70% of wage loss up to $1,250 monthly (maximum 52 weeks); $30 per day loss of services (14-day retroactive waiting period and maximum 52 weeks).

Owners must certify liability insurance when initially registering, and provide insurance information when renewing.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has compulsory liability insurance law, sale and purchase are optional.

Minimum liability insurance coverage must be at least $15,000 for injury or death of 1 person in an accident; $30,000 for the injury or death of more than 1 person in an accident; and $5,000 for damage to the property of another person.

Proof of financial responsibility must be furnished by filing evidence satisfactory to the Department that all motor vehicles registered in a person’s name are covered by motor vehicle liability insurance or by a program of self-insurance as provided by the Department or other reliable financial arrangements, deposits, resources, or commitments acceptable to the Department. Proof of coverage required at all times.

State has non-resident service of process law. Does not have guest suit law.

Rhode Island

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $500 or personal injury or death.

Motor vehicle insurance is required in the amounts of $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident; $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $25,000 because of injury to or destruction of property in any 1 accident or $75,000 combined single limit.

State has non-resident service of process law; it does not have guest suit law.

South Carolina

Insurance in South Carolina is compulsory. Upon driver’s license issuance and renewal, applicants must certify that they hold required coverage.  Motor vehicle owners must certify when they register the vehicle and each year upon re-registration that they have and will maintain the required coverage. 

All motor vehicles must have liability insurance as follows: (1) $25,000 for bodily injury to 1 person in any 1 accident; (2) $50,000 for bodily injury to 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and (3) $25,000 for injury to or destruction of the property of others.

Owners must maintain proof of financial responsibility in the motor vehicle at all times and it must be displayed upon demand by a police officer or any other person duly authorized by law.

Uninsured motorists may be eligible to apply for a $550.00Uninsured Motorist Fee that allows them to drive and operate an uninsured motor vehicle on South Carolina roads.

State has non-resident service of process law and has no guest suit law.

South Dakota

Every person who drives or owns a motor vehicle required to be registered in South Dakota shall maintain financial responsibility and must provide proof if requested by law enforcement. Proof of financial responsibility, in form of SR-22 filing, must be filed with the state following conviction for certain vehicle offenses.

All motor vehicle operators must have motor vehicle insurance in the following amounts: $25,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 1 person in any 1 accident; $50,000 for bodily injury to or the death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $25,000 for injury to or destruction of property of other in 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law.

State has mandatory uninsured and under-insured motorist coverage.

State has “add-on” supplemental insurance law. Sale mandatory. Purchase optional. Benefits: medical, $2,000; wage loss, $60/week (14-day waiting period, 52-week maximum); death, $10,000. General damages, no limit.

Tennessee

The Commissioner of Safety must revoke the license and registration of all operators of motor vehicles involved in an accident unless proof of financial responsibility in the amount of no less than $500 is presented to the Commissioner. Acceptable forms of proof include the filing of written proof of insurance coverage, a cash deposit, or the filing of a bond.

A driver need not provide proof of financial responsibility to the Commissioner after an accident if the person had in effect at the time of the accident an automobile liability policy or bond with respect to the vehicle involved in the accident.

Minimum permissible insurance coverage consists of either: single-limit coverage of $60,000 for any 1 accident; split-limit coverage of $25,000 for injury or death of any 1 person and $50,000 for injury or death of any 2 persons and not less than $10,000 for damage to property in any 1 accident; a deposit of cash with the Commissioner in the amount of $40,000; or the filing of a bond in the amount of $40,000 with the Commissioner.

State has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Texas

The minimum amounts of motor vehicle liability insurance coverage required are $30,000 for bodily injury to or death of 1 person in 1 accident, $60,000 for bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in 1 accident, and $25,000 for damage to or destruction of property of another in 1 accident.

Has future-proof-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage of $1,000 or more to any vehicle or personal injury or death. Must show financial responsibility if in accident with more than $1,000 property damage and there is a reasonable probability of judgment against the driver. Uninsured motorist coverage at least equal to minimum financial responsibility limits issued on all insurance policies unless insured rejects coverage. Liability insurance mandatory. Current proof of liability insurance required upon request of law enforcement officer and to receive or renew motor vehicle registration or vehicle safety inspection. Proof of liability insurance required only of original drivers license applicants.

Utah

State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death; no judgment minimum.

Every driver of a motor vehicle must have a minimum insurance coverage of $25,000 for injury or death to any 1 person in an accident, $65,000 for injury or death to 2 or more people in any accident, and $15,000 for the damage to any property in 1 accident. Proof of financial responsibility required after driver’s license suspension or revocation or when department is notified that an uninsured owner or operator has been involved in an accident. Failure to show proof may result in suspension or revocation of driver’s license.

State has non-resident service of process law.

State has uninsured insurance law. Sale and purchase are mandatory. Benefits: medical and hospital, $3,000; wage loss, 85% of gross income up to $250/week for 52 weeks; substitute service, $20/day, maximum 365 days; funeral, $1,500; survivors, $3,000, 3-day waiting period for wage and service loss where total disability is less than 2 weeks.

State has no fault insurance law.

Vermont

No owner or operator of a licensed motor vehicle shall operate or permit the operation of the vehicle upon the highways of the state without having in effect an automobile liability policy or bond in the amount of at least $25,000 for 1 per-son killed or injured in an accident; $50,000 for 2 or more persons killed or injured in any 1 accident; and $10,000 for damages to property in any 1 accident.

State has Non-resident Service of Process Law.

Virginia

Has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage of $1,000 or more or personal injury or death.

Vehicle owners are required to pay a $500 UMV fee if registering an uninsured motor vehicle; all policies must include “uninsured motorist” coverage.

Every motor vehicle’s owner’s policy must insure the insured or other person against loss from any liability imposed by law for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, and injury to or destruction of property caused by accident and arising out of the ownership, use, or operation of such motor vehicle or motor vehicles within the Commonwealth, any other state in the United States, or Canada.

Minimum insurance amounts, with respect to each motor vehicle, are $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident and, subject to the limit for 1 person; to a limit of $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and to a limit of $20,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law.

Washington

State has mandatory liability insurance law and has security and future-proof type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $700 to 1 person’s property or personal injury requiring attention of doctor or causing death.

No person may operate a motor vehicle subject to registration in the state unless the person is insured under a motor vehicle liability policy with a liability limit of not less than $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident and, subject to that limit for 1 person, a limit of not less than $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident, and a limit of not less than $10,000 because of damage to property of others in any 1 accident.

Motorists must carry on their person proof of auto insurance or financial responsibility. Law carries a $450 fine for noncompliance and applies to out-of-state motorists with similar proof-of-insurance cards.

State has non-resident service of process law.

West Virginia

Has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $500 or personal injury or death.

The minimum liability coverage is: (1) $20,000 for bodily injury or death to 1 person in 1 accident; (2) $40,000 for bodily injury or death to 2 or more persons in 1 accident; and (3) $10,000 because of injury or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

Compulsory liability insurance is required.

Proof of coverage is required at all times. Noncompliance could result in fine, jail, and license suspension.

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law.

Wisconsin

Liability insurance is mandatory.  State has security-type law applicable in event of accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death.

Minimum financial responsibility limits: $25,000/$50,000/$10,000. Noncompliance could result in revocation of operating/registration privileges.

State has non-resident service of process law; it does not have guest suit law.

Wyoming

State has security-type law applicable in the event of an accident causing property damage in excess of $1,000 or personal injury or death.

A vehicle owner’s policy of liability insurance must insure the person named and, except for persons specifically excluded, any other person, as insured, using any covered motor vehicle with the express or implied permission of the named insured against loss from the liability for damages as follows: $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 1 person in any 1 accident and subject to the limit for 1 person; $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of 2 or more persons in any 1 accident; and $20,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any 1 accident.

State has non-resident service of process law and guest suit law.

Puerto Rico

Upon obtaining or renewing motor vehicle license, must pay premium amount for compulsory liability insurance.

Initial premium for compulsory liability insurance is $99 for private passenger vehicle and $148 for commercial vehicle.

Traditional liability insurance, assuming coverage is equal to or greater than that required by compulsory liability insurance, may be used to meet requirement of compulsory liability insurance.

Automobile Accident Compensation Administration compensates individuals who suffer bodily injury, sickness, or death as a result of maintenance or operation of motor vehicle; benefits received may be reduced by insurance coverage amounts.


Canada

Alberta

Contracts evidenced by the motor vehicle liability policy insure, to a limit of not less than C$200,000 exclusive of interests and costs, against liability resulting from bodily injury to or the death of 1 or more persons, and loss of or damage to property.

Insurance is compulsory for residents. Proof is required at all times.

Province does not have non-resident service of process law. Province has guest suit law.

British Columbia

Vehicle insurance is compulsory for vehicles operating in BC.

The minimum third party legal liability insurance limit for passenger vehicles is C$200,000 exclusive of interest and costs indemnifying for legal liability arising from bodily injury or death to 1 or more persons, or loss of or damage to property in 1 accident.

Claims by residents or by tourists for damage to vehicles or injuries to occupants caused by ‘uninsured’ or ‘hit-and-run’ vehicles when operated on a highway in BC are payable by ICBC subject to a maximum of C$200,000. However, the payment to a tourist is limited to the lesser of either C$200,000 or the maximum amount that would be available, under similar circumstances, to a BC resident touring in the tourist’s home jurisdiction. All claims for property damage by a hit-and-run vehicle in BC are subject to a C$750 deductible.

Tourists visiting BC are required to produce proof of financial responsibility if their vehicle is involved in an accident in BC. In that case the tourist should be able to produce a “financial responsibility card.” The tourist should obtain the card before entering Canada. The financial responsibility card is obtained from the insurer providing the current insurance on the vehicle used by the tourist. That insurer must have undertaken to pay claims arising in Canada in accordance with the compulsory insurance laws in the jurisdiction where the accident occurs.

Tourists and non-residents can maintain their out-of-province insurance if the respective vehicle is licensed outside of BC and it complies with the BC licensing exemptions noted above.

 

Manitoba

The minimum amount is not less than C$200,000, exclusive of interest and costs, in respect to liability arising from bodily injury or death to 1 or more persons, or loss of or damage to property in 1 accident.

Has security-type law applicable in event of property damage in excess of C$1,000 or personal injury or death. Minimum financial responsibility limits: C$200,000 inclusive.

Insurance: Vehicle insurance is compulsory through Manitoba Public Insurance, and must be purchased when vehicle is registered and upon annual renewal of registration. An insurance premium is also charged with the driver’s license fee, and highway.

New Brunswick

New Brunswick has future-proof law applicable to accidents resulting in death, bodily injury, or property damage of C$1,000 or more. Minimum financial responsibility limits: C$200,000 (exclusive of interests and costs) for private passenger vehicles. Proof is required at all times. Fine for noncompliance is C$287.50.

Province does not have non-resident service of process law; it has no guest suit law.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Every motorist must have insurance in the amount of C$200,000 for a single accident.

Has security-type law applicable in event of accident resulting in death, personal injury, or property damage exceeding C$1,000. Minimum financial responsibility limits: C$200,000.

Unsatisfied judgment fund law: “Judgment Recovery Nfld” operates a fund for pay¬ment of uncollectible judgments exceeding C$200 (property damage only).

Northwest Territories

No person may operate or park a motor vehicle on a highway unless there is a motor vehicle liability policy in force that meets the minimum coverage requirements.

Every person who owns and operates a motor vehicle on a highway must maintain an insurance policy that provides liability coverage, in respect of any 1 accident, to the limit of not less than C$200,000 exclusive of interest and costs, against liability resulting from bodily injury to or the death of 1 or more persons and loss of or damage to property.

In claims arising out of bodily injury or death must have priority to the extent of C$190,000 over claims arising out of loss of damage to property, and claims arising out of loss of or damage to property must have priority to the extent of C$10,000 over claims arising out of bodily injury or death.

Nova Scotia

Every operator of a motor vehicle must have insurance coverage in the amount of C$200,000 dollars in respect to 1 accident.

Province has non-resident service of process law; does not have guest suit law.

Nunavut

No person shall park a motor vehicle on a highway, other than a privately owned area that is designed and primarily used for the parking of vehicles, or operate a motor vehicle on a highway unless, with respect to a motor vehicle for which there is a certificate of registration or an in transit permit or that is not registered under the laws of any jurisdiction, there is a motor vehicle liability policy that is in force and that evidences a contract that insures at least to the limits required with respect to a motor vehicle registered under the laws of a jurisdiction other than the Territories, the owner of the motor vehicle meets the prescribed standards of financial responsibility with respect to the operation of the motor vehicle in the Territories.

Ontario

Every motor vehicle liability policy must provide coverage of at least C$200,000 against liability resulting from bodily injury to or the death of 1 or more persons and loss of or damage to property. Claims against the insured arising out of bodily injury or death have priority to the extent of C$190,000 over claims arising out of loss of or damage to property. Claims arising out of loss of or damage to property have priority to the extent of C$10,000 over claims arising out of bodily injury or death.

Prince Edward Island

All motor vehicle operators must have at least C$200,000, exclusive of interest and cost against liability resulting from bodily injury to, or the death of, or damage to property for 1 accident.

Compulsory 3rd party insurance for limits of C$200,000.

Judgment recover (PEI) Ltd. available for judgments up to C$200,000 for bodily injury or death of any person or for property damage. Such payment not required to non-residents unless they reside in a jurisdiction where recourse of substantial similar type is afforded to residents of Prince Edward Island. Proof of insurance is required. Penalty, for noncompliance: minimum C$600; maximum C$2,000.

Quebec

The owner of any automobile operating in Québec must have a liability insurance contract. The insurance contract must cover property damage caused in an accident in Canada or the United States and bodily injury or death caused by the automobile outside Québec, elsewhere in Canada, and in the United States. The minimum coverage required for an individual owner is C$50,000, and the minimum coverage required for a commercial operator is C$1,000,000.

Québec has an automobile insurance fund administered by the SAAQ that compensates bodily injury and death as a result of automobile accidents. Residents of Québec are covered inside and outside of Québec. Non-residents are covered for accidents occurring in Québec to the extent that they were not responsible for the accident.

A person registering a vehicle in Québec or obtaining a Québec driver’s license must make payments into the fund.

Residents: All Quebecers, victims of automobile accidents in or outside Quebec, shall be compensated by the SAAQ regardless of fault. Non-residents: Non-resident victim of an accident in Quebec shall be compensated to the extent he or she is not responsible for the accident unless a different agreement between the SAAQ and the jurisdiction where he or she resides. In case of disagreement between the victim and the SAAQ concerning his or her responsibility, the victim may have recourse to the law court. He or she will be entirely compensated if he or she is the owner, driver, or passenger of a vehicle registered in Quebec. Benefits include: Indemnity for loss of income: 90% of net income (maximum gross income considered is C$64,000.00 (CDN/yearly). Reimbursement of medical, hospital, and rehabilitation expenses (disfigurement, dismemberment, pain, and suffering). The maximum lump sum awarded for permanent impairment was C$219,671.00 for 2011. Death benefits depend on the age and marital status of the deceased. For 2011, a lump sum of C$4695.00 was forwarded to cover funeral expenses.

Financing of the public automobile insurance plan is ensured through contributions paid by motor vehicle owners and driver’s licence holders. In 2012, owners of a passenger vehicle are required to pay a contribution of $128 upon renewal of their registration. The amount varies for other types of vehicles. Holders of a driver’s licence must pay a minimum contribution of $68 a year. The contribution may be higher, depending on the number of demerit points entered on their record.

Saskatchewan

Province has future-proof law applicable for failure to satisfy judgment for death, bodily injury, or property damage exceeding C$1,000 due to traffic accident. Minimum financial responsibility limits: C$200,000 inclusive.

The Automobile Accident Insurance Act (AAIA) provides limited compensation, regardless of fault, for accident victims.

Yukon

Province has compulsory third-party liability insurance on all vehicles with C$200,000 minimum personal injury or property damage. Proof is required at all times. Driving without such proof is C$400 fine.

Every person who owns and operates a motor vehicle on a highway must maintain an insurance policy that provides liability coverage, in respect of any 1 accident, to the limit of not less than C$200,000, exclusive of interest and costs, against liability resulting from bodily injury to or the death of 1 or more persons, and loss of or damage to property.

Claims arising out of bodily injury or death must have priority to the extent of C$190,000 over claims arising out of loss of damage to property, and claims arising out of loss of or damage to property must have priority to the extent of C$10,000 over claims arising out of bodily injury or death.