Graduated Drivers Licensing (Click here for Canada)

United States

Alabama

Alabama has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s/instruction permit.

  • Learner’s/instruction permit holders may drive with parent, legal guardian, or licensed passenger 21 or older in the front passenger seat.
  • At age 16, after an individual has held a permit for 6 months and completed a minimum of 30 hours behind-the-wheel practice, they are eligible for the road test. An individual can be waived from taking the road test if they have received a certificate from their Driver Education instructor.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive with more than 1 passenger (except family members or licensed drivers age 21 or older) and are restricted from driving between midnight and 6 a.m. (secondarily enforced).

At age 17, with 6 months of driving experience and with no violations, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Alaska

Alaska has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 14, residents are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • During this stage, drivers must be supervised by a parent or guardian at all times, and must accumulate 40 hours of supervised driving during the permit stage—including 10 hours in “progressively challenging circumstances” such as inclement weather and nighttime conditions.

At 16, drivers holding a learner’s permit for at least 6 months are eligible for a provisional license.

  • Provisional license holders are restricted from driving between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. and transporting passengers under age 21, with the exception of family members.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for a full unrestricted license if they have not been convicted of a violation of a traffic law, or at age 18.

Arizona

Arizona has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 15 years and 6 months, residents are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • During this stage, novice drivers may only drive when supervised by a licensed driver age 21 or older.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license after holding a learner’s permit for at least 6 months and upon completion of a driver education course or upon written certification that the applicant has completed at least 30 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving.

  • For the first 6 months of licensure in the intermediate phase, individuals may not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. unless accompanied by a parent or legal guardian or traveling to or from a school, family or religious activity or other qualifying emergency (secondarily enforced).
  • During the first 6 months of licensure in the intermediate phase, individuals may not have more than 1 non-related passenger who is under age 18 unless accompanied by licensed parent or legal guardian (secondarily enforced).

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers who have held an intermediate license for at least 6 months are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Arkansas

Arkansas has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14, individuals who have passed the knowledge and vision tests are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may only drive when accompanied by a licensed driver, 18 years of age or older, who has at least 1 year of driving experience and is occupying a seat beside the driver, except in the event the permittee is operating a motorcycle.
  • Arkansas does not have required number of supervised driving hours.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for an intermediate license if they have been crash- and conviction-free for at least 6 months.

  • The intermediate license will automatically expire when the driver reaches age 18, provided that the driver has been free of a serious collision and conviction of a serious traffic violation for at least 1 year prior to his or her 18th birthday.
  • Drivers with an intermediate license may operate a vehicle only when all vehicle occupants are wearing passenger restraints.
  • Drivers with an intermediate license may not operate a vehicle between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m. unless accompanied by a licensed driver 21 or older.
  • Drivers with an intermediate license may not operate a vehicle with more than 1 unrelated passenger under 21 unless accompanied by a licensed driver 21 or older.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

California

California has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15 1/2, individuals are eligible for a state issued learner’s permit. During this stage, individuals may only drive when supervised by a parent, guardian, or licensed driver at least 25 years old.

  • Individuals 15 1/2 to 17 1/2 years of age must be simultaneously enrolled in or have passed a driver education course to be eligible for a learner’s permit.
  • Drivers must hold the permit for at least 6 months and accumulate at least 50 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian certified driving experience. Individuals must also complete 6 hours of professional driver training.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • During the first year of the intermediate license stage individuals may not drive from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., and individuals may not transport any passengers under 20 unless they are supervised by a driver at least 25 years old (secondarily enforced).

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license. Exception allows a class C restricted license to enlistees in the California National Guard.

Exception allows a class C restricted license to enlistees in the California National Guard.

Colorado

Colorado has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

The learner’s permit eligibility is based on age and driver education.

  • At age 15, individuals may drive with a learner’s (instruction) permit if they have completed and passed the classroom portion of a state-approved driver education course within 6 months of applying for their permit and they are accompanied by a parent, legal guardian, or driving instructor.
  • Individuals 15 1/2 years of age may drive with a learner’s permit if they are supervised by a parent, legal guardian, or driving instructor and have completed a 4-hour driver awareness course.

At age 16, individuals who choose not to enroll in any formal driver’s education course may drive with a learner’s permit.

Learner’s permit holders must hold the permit for 1 year and log at least 50 hours of supervised driving time (with 10 hours of night driving) before applying for a restricted license.

  • If there is no approved driving school within 30 miles of the permit holder’s residence, a learner’s permit holder between 15 and 15 1/2 years of age may alternatively complete either 6 hours of behind the wheel instruction or 12 hours parental supervised training.
  • During the restricted or intermediate license phase, licensees may not drive between midnight and 5 a.m. for the first year of licensure unless accompanied by a parent or legal guardian (secondarily enforced). Travel between the individual’s place of employment, education, or residence is exempt with a signed statement.
  • Drivers with intermediate licenses may not have any passengers under 21 years of age for the first 6 months of licensure, and only 1 non-family passenger under 21 during next 6 months of licensure (secondarily enforced).

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Connecticut

Connecticut has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • During this stage individuals may only drive when accompanied by a licensed parent or guardian, an adult at least 20 years old who has held a driver’s license for at least 4 or more suspension-free consecutive years, or a driving instructor.
  • Drivers must hold the permit for at least 6 months (4 months if enrolled in driver education) and complete 40 hours of certified practice driving (8 hours of which must be done with a commercial driving school) before being eligible for an unrestricted license.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • During the first 6 months with a provisional license, drivers are permitted no passenger other than a licensed parent or guardian, a licensed driving instructor giving instruction, and adult at least 20 years old who has held a driver’s license for four or more consecutive suspension-free years.
  • During the driver’s second 6 months, all immediate family members are permitted as the only passengers. Permit holders are also restricted from driving between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.
  • In addition, learner’s permit and provisional license holders may not transport more passengers than the number of seatbelts in the vehicle or operate any vehicle that requires a public passenger transportation permit or a vanpool vehicle.

At age 18, drivers who complete the graduated driver’s license system are eligible for an unrestricted license. Parents or legal guardians are also required to complete a 2-hour class concerning novice driver laws and safe driving practices.

Delaware

Delaware has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals who have successfully completed an approved driver education course and have passed both a written and road skills test are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • A learner’s permit holder must be supervised by a licensed driver age 25 or older riding in the front passenger seat and who has held a Class D license for at least 5 years.
  • No passengers other than the adult supervisor and 1 other passenger may be in the vehicle during the first 12 months of holding the learner’s permit (immediate family members are exempt).

After 6 months, learner’s permit holders are eligible for an intermediate license as long as they have completed 50 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving time.

  • In the intermediate stage, drivers may drive unsupervised between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. Intermediate stage drivers may drive between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. only when supervised, unless they are traveling to or from church activities, work activities, or the license holder’s school.
  • Intermediate license holders may not transport more than 1 passenger who is not a family member.

At the age of 17 and after 6 months of holding an intermediate license, a driver in the intermediate stage may apply for a Class D license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under 18.

District of Columbia

The District has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit. During this stage, drivers must be supervised by a parent or guardian at all times.

  • In this stage, individuals may not drive between the hours of 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. and must accumulate at least 50 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving that is certified by a parent or guardian.

After holding the learner’s permit for 6 months, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • For the first 6 months, intermediate license holders may not carry any passengers (except drivers 21 and older and family members). Thereafter, drivers may transport no more than 2 passengers under 21 (except family members).
  • Intermediate license holders may not drive between midnight and 6 a.m. From September to June, they may not drive between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. on Sunday through Thursday nights.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license. In the District, all license applicants must hold a learner’s permit for 6 months, regardless of age.

Florida

Florida has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may only drive during the day (after 3 months individuals may drive until 10 p.m.) with a licensed driver 21 years or older.
  • Permit holders must also accumulate at least 50 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian certified driving.

At age 16, drivers who have held the permit for at least 12 months without a traffic conviction are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders who are 16 may not drive unsupervised between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. At 17, intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of 1 a.m. and 5 a.m.
  • Florida does not have a passenger restriction.

At age 18, individuals are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Georgia

Georgia has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

Individuals at least 15 years of age may apply for an instruction/learner’s permit to operate a non-commercial Class C vehicle.

  • While driving, the permit holder must be accompanied by a person at least 21 years of age licensed to drive a Class C vehicle.
  • Novice drivers must hold the permit for at least 12 months and 1 day and pass a road test before being eligible for an intermediate license.
  • Instruction permit holders must accumulate 40 hours (including 6 at night) of supervised driving certified by a driving instructor, parent, or guardian.

Individuals at least 16 years of age may apply for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive between midnight and 6 a.m. — no exceptions.
  • During the first 6 months of the intermediate license, novice drivers are prohibited from transporting any non-immediate family members (secondarily enforced). During the 2nd 6 months, no more than 1 passenger under 21 (immediate family members exempt). Thereafter, intermediate license holders are prohibited from transporting more than 3 passengers who are non-family members under 21 (secondarily enforced).

At age 18, drivers are eligible for a full unrestricted license as long as they have had no major traffic convictions in the last 12 months. The intermediate license requirements apply to all applicants for an unrestricted license.

Drivers may only move from 1 stage of licensing to the next if they have completed 12 consecutive months without a conviction for 1 or more of the following: DUI, eluding a police officer, drag racing, reckless driving, hit and run, and any moving violation for which 4 or more points are assessed.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 17.

Hawaii

Hawaii has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15 and 6 months, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders must hold it for at least 6 months, and must practice driving for at least 50 hours, including 10 hours at night.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • During this stage, individuals may not drive between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. (exceptions include driving to and from work or authorized school activities).
  • Transportation of more than 1 passenger under age 18 who is not a family member also is prohibited during this stage.
  • Drivers must remain free of convictions for traffic related offenses and may not be at fault for any crashes in order to progress in the graduated licensing program.

Drivers who have held a provisional license for 6 months and are at least 17 years of age, or have turned age 18, are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Idaho

Idaho has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14 and 6 months, individuals are eligible for a driver’s training instruction permit. The driver’s training instruction permit is held by the driver training instructor and the individual may only drive with the training instructor until the driver training course has been successfully completed. After successful completion of driver training, the permit is given to the individuals, which is then used as a supervised instruction permit.

  • During the supervised permit phase, individuals may only drive when supervised by a person who holds a valid driver’s license and is at least 21 years of age.
  • The supervising driver must be the only passenger in the front seat. Drivers must accumulate at least 50 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving over a minimum 6-month period.

At 15 years of age, individuals are eligible for a driver’s license if they have successfully completed an approved driver education course and have completed at least 50 hours of supervised driving over a minimum period of 6 months.

  • Drivers under 16 are restricted to daylight driving only, unless accompanied by a supervising person who holds a valid driver’s license and is at least 21 years of age. Daylight hours are considered as 1/2 hour before sunrise to 1/2 hour after sunset. There are no exceptions to this restriction.
  • Drivers under 17 are restricted to carrying no more than 1 passenger who is under 17 years of age during the first 6 months of licensure, unless the passenger is related by blood, marriage or adoption.

At age 17, or after the first 6 months of licensure, supervised driving is no longer required and drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license. Any violation, including an alcohol violation, during the supervised permit period, will result in cancellation of the permit. The individual must purchase a new permit and start the 6-month supervised driving period over again.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 17.

Illinois

Illinois has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals enrolled in driver education are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit. While operating with a learner’s permit, drivers may not drive unsupervised between 11 p.m. Friday and 6 a.m. Saturday, between 11 p.m. Saturday and 6 a.m. Sunday or between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Sunday through Thursday.

  • Learner’s permit holders must accumulate 50 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving, supervised by a parent or an adult age 21 or older with a valid driver’s license, who must be sitting in the front passenger seat and may not be intoxicated.
  • The learner’s permit must be held for a minimum of 9 months before becoming eligible for an intermediate license without acquiring any driving convictions during the 9 month permit phase.

Learner’s permit holders who have completed the learner’s permit stage as well as a state-approved driver education course and have their parent’s or guardian’s permission may apply for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between 11 p.m. Friday and 6 a.m. Saturday, between 11 p.m. Saturday and 6 a.m. Sunday or between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Sunday through Thursday.
  • For the first year of licensing, or until the driver is age 18, whichever occurs first, the number of passengers is limited to 1 person under age 20, unless the additional passenger(s) is a sibling, step-sibling, child, or step-child of the driver. After this period, the number of passengers is limited to 1 in the front seat and the number of safety belts in the back seat. The intermediate license must be held for 12 months and may be extended for 6 months if driver receives a moving violation.
  • All occupants under age 19 must wear safety belts.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license as long as they have not received any moving violations in the last 6 months and have resolved all tickets.

All license applicants must complete driver education.

Indiana

Indiana has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, a learner’s permit may be issued if the applicant is enrolled in an approved driver education course, or age 16 without driver education.

  • This permit allows a holder to operate a motor vehicle while the holder is participating in an approved driver education course, with a certified driving instructor in the front seat of a vehicle equipped with dual brake controls, or when a parent or guardian who is 25 years of age or older, or a spouse who is 21 years of age or older, and has a valid driver’s license is seated in the vehicle’s front passenger seat.
  • If the learner’s permit applicant is school age, and either habitually misses class, is under suspension for a second time during the same school year, is under expulsion from school, or withdrawn from school for reasons other than proven financial hardship, then the applicant is not eligible to receive his or her learner’s permit until age 18.
  • Regardless of age, the permit holder must hold the permit for 180 days and complete 50 hours of certified driving practice (10 hours at night) before receiving an intermediate license.

Drivers are eligible for an intermediate license at age 16 years and 180 days upon completion of an approved driver education program or 16 years and 270 days without driver education.

  • During the first 180 days of the intermediate stage, unless accompanied by a licensed adult over the age of 25, or a spouse over the age of 21, or for lawful employment, school sanctioned activities, or a religious event, individuals may not drive between the hours of 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. Thereafter, until age 18, individuals may not drive between the hours of 1 a.m and 5 a.m Saturday and Sunday (“late night” Friday and Saturday) or between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. Sunday through Friday.
  • Also, intermediate license holders may not have any passengers other than immediate family for the first 180 days, unless supervised by a licensed driver with valid driving privileges at least 25 years old or if the licensed driver is the holder’s spouse, age 21.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted driver’s license. Intermediate licenses automatically expire 30 days after a driver’s 21st birthday.

Iowa

Iowa has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14, individuals are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may not drive unsupervised and must accumulate at least 20 (2 at night) hours of parental/guardian certified driving hours.
  • A person possessing an instruction permit when he or she committed a moving violation or was involved in a collision must remain free of moving violations and not be involved in a collision for 6 months before he or she may be issued an intermediate license.

At age 16, individuals who have held a permit for at least 12 months, have completed driver education, and have passed the appropriate driving, written, and vision tests are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between 12:30 a.m. and 5 a.m.
  • For the first 6 months of licensure, intermediate license holders may not drive with more than one unrelated passenger under age 18, unless waved by a parent or guardian.
  • Individuals must also accumulate an additional 10 (2 at night) hours of parental/guardian supervised driving in the intermediate stage.

Persons who were convicted of a moving violation or involved in a contributive traffic collision while holding an instruction permit or intermediate license are subject to a remedial driver improvement action or suspension of the permit or intermediate license.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license who: (1) have held an intermediate license or a comparable license from another state for at least 12 months; (2) have been accident- and violation-free for at least 12 months; (3) have not had their license suspended or revoked; (4) have permission from a parent or guardian; and (5) present an affidavit by a parent/guardian attesting to the applicant’s driving experience.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Kansas

Kansas has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14, and individual may apply for a learner’s permit.

  • Vision and written tests are required to obtain a learner’s permit.
  • Learner’s permit holders may drive at any time when accompanied by a licensed driver 21 years of age or older.

Drivers who have held a learner’s permit for at least 12 months are eligible to receive a restricted license. Applicants for a restricted license must be at least 15 years of age, but less than 16, and have completed driver’s education. Drivers must complete at least 50 (10 at night) hours of supervised driving to move to the next stage at age 16.

  • Restricted license holders under 16 may drive to and from school (not school activities); to, from or in connection with any employment religious service, or farm-related work, or at any time when accompanied by a licensed adult driver in the front seat.
  • Restricted license holders 16 and older have a night time limit of 9 p.m. to 5 a.m., except to or from employment, farm-related work, religious service, or school-related activities, or when accompanied by a licensed adult driver.
  • Restricted license holders under 16 may not have any non-sibling minor passengers. Restricted license holders 16 and older are not permitted to transport more than 1 non-immediate family member under 18.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Kentucky

Kentucky has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • During this stage, individuals may not drive unless supervised by a person 21 years of age or older, or a driving instructor on a driver training range.
  • Learner’s permit holders may not drive between the hours of midnight and 6 a.m. and may only have 1 unrelated passenger under 20 years of age.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers who have held a permit for at least 6 months, accumulated 60 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian certified driving are eligible to apply for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive between the hours of midnight and 6 a.m. unless they can demonstrate “good cause” for driving such as emergencies or participation in school or work-related activities.
  • Permit and intermediate license holders must complete a mandatory 4 hour graduated license safety class.
  • During the intermediate state, drivers are permitted only 1 unrelated passenger under 20 years of age (secondarily enforced).

At age 17, after holding an intermediate license for 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Under state law, 16-and 17-year olds who are identified for academic deficiency, have 9 or more unexcused absences from school, or who have dropped out will not be eligible to receive a learner’s permit or intermediate license. Drivers who already hold a permit or intermediate license can have it revoked for the same reasons.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Louisiana

Louisiana has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible to receive a learner’s permit provided they have completed a 38-hour state approved driver education course and have passed a driving knowledge test and vision test. Learner’s permit holders must be accompanied by a licensed driver over age 21.

At age 16, drivers who have held a permit for at least 6 months, accumulated 50 hours (including 15 hours at night) of certified driving time, and have passed a road test are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.
  • Individuals may not drive with more than one non-family passenger under age 21 between 6 p.m. and 5 a.m. A supervising adult must be a parent, guardian, or be at least 21 years old and have a valid license.
  • Drivers must hold the intermediate license for at least 12 months.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted driver’s license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Maine

Maine has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may not drive unless supervised by a driver who is at least 20 years old and has held a license for at least 2 years and is occupying the seat beside the driver.
  • Permit holders must also accumulate at least 70 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian supervised driving.

At age 16, individuals holding the permit for at least 6 months are eligible for a probationary/intermediate license.  Unless supervised by a driver at least 20 years old who has held a license for at least 2 years, drivers may not:

  • Transport any passengers, except immediate family during the first 270 days of licensure
  • Drive unsupervised between midnight and 5 a.m.

At age 16 and 9 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted driver’s license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Maryland

Maryland has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 15 and 9 months, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • While driving, learner’s permit holders must be accompanied by a qualified supervising driver who is 21 years or older and has held a license for a minimum of 3 years. The person must be seated beside the new driver at all times, with no other front seat occupants.
  • Drivers must hold the learner’s permit for at least 9 months and accumulate at least 60 hours (10 nighttime) of parental/guardian certified driving before being eligible for a provisional license.

At 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for a provisional license, providing they remain conviction-free or do not have a PBJ (probation before judgment) for a moving violation.

  • Provisional license holders may not drive unsupervised during the hours of midnight to 5 a.m. unless for school, sports, job or volunteer work. The nighttime driving restriction only applies to provisional license holders under 18.
  • For the first 5 months during this stage, drivers are prohibited from transporting passengers under the age of 18 (immediate family exempt and secondarily enforced).

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education and certification of practice driving are required of all initial applicants.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit. Permit holders may not drive unsupervised.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for a junior operator’s/intermediate license who have: (1) held a permit for a period of 6 months; (2) completed an approved driver’s education course; (3) completed 40 or more (30 if an approved driver skills development program is completed) additional hours of behind-the-wheel experience driving supervised by a licensed driver age 21 or older; and (4) a clean driving record for a minimum of 6 months.

  • Junior operator’s/intermediate license holders are prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 12:30 a.m. and 5 a.m. (secondarily enforced).
  • For the first 6 months of the junior operator’s/intermediate license phase, drivers may not transport any      passengers (other than family members) under the age of 18 unless supervised by a licensed driver age 21 or older (secondarily enforced).
  • A junior operator’s/intermediate license holder who violates the passenger restriction shall be subject to a license suspension of up to 60 days. The 6-month passenger restriction period will stop running when the suspension begins and the remainder of the restriction period will start running again when the suspension is completed.
  • Junior operators/intermediate license holders face a license suspension for a 2nd or subsequent offense for speeding or drag racing violations.

At age 18, drivers who have held a junior operator’s/intermediate license for at least 12 months are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Michigan

Michigan has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14 and 9 months, individuals who have completed the first segment of driver education, including 6 hours of on-the-road driving with an instructor, and pass a vision test and health standards are eligible for a learner’s license/permit.

  • An individual with a learner’s license/permit may drive only when accompanied either by a licensed parent or legal guardian or, with the permission of the parent or legal guardian, a licensed driver 21 years of age or older.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license who have: (1) held the permit for at least 6 months; (2) accumulated 50 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian certified driving; (3) completed segment 2 of driver education; (4) no convictions/civil infractions, license suspensions, or crashes during the 90-day period immediately prior to applying for an intermediate license; and (5) passed a road test.

  • Intermediate license holders are prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. unless driving to or from employment.
  • Intermediate license holders may not transport more than 1 non-family passenger under age 21 unless traveling to or from work, school, or a school-sanctioned event.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license who have held an intermediate license for at least 6 months and completed 12 consecutive months of driving without a moving violation, an at-fault crash (even if no citation is issued), a license suspension, or a violation of the graduated license restrictions.

Throughout graduated licensing program, parents receive a separate notice of traffic offenses from the Department of State.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Minnesota

Minnesota has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, an individual is eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit. A permit can be issued if that person meets the following requirements: (1) has completed a driver’s education course in another state, has previously been issued a valid license from another state, or is enrolled in a certified driver education program that includes classroom and behind the wheel training; and (2) has completed the classroom phase of instruction in the driver education program and has passed an eye examination, and has passed a knowledge test.

  • The permit enables a person to operate a motor vehicle, but the applicant must be accompanied by a certified driver education instructor, the permit holder’s parent or guardian, or another licensed driver 21 years of age or older. The adult licensed driver must be sitting in the passenger seat next to the permit holder.
  • Instruction permit holders must accumulate at least 30 hours (10 at night)  of parental/guardian certified driving.  Effective January 1, 2015, instruction permit holders must accrue 40 hours with 15 at night and provide an approved supervised driving log, plus 10 additional driving hours unless the primary driving supervisor has a certification of supplemental parental curriculum.

At age 16, after holding the instruction/learner’s permit for 6 months, drivers are eligible for a provisional license.

  • Provisional license holders may not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m.
  • Provisional license holders are allowed no more than 1 passenger under age 20 for first 6 months of licensure, and no more than 3 passengers under age 20 for the next 6 months. Family members are exempt.

A person under 18 years of age is eligible for a driver’s license under 1 of the following conditions: (1) the applicant has a valid license from another state; or (2) the applicant has held a provisional license for 12 consecutive months before the license application and has incurred no conviction for a crash-related moving violation, and not more than 1 conviction for a moving violation that is not crash-related; and the application is approved by a parent or guardian.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Mississippi

Mississippi has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit, or age 14 if enrolled in driver education. Permit holders may not drive unsupervised.

At age 16, drivers who have held the learner’s permit for at least 12 months are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders are prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Thursday through Sunday nights and 11:30 p.m. and 6 a.m. Friday and Saturday nights.
  • Mississippi does not have a passenger restriction for intermediate license holders.
  • Intermediate licensees must hold their license for 6 months before applying for an unrestricted license.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.  License applicants 17 years old or older are exempt from the 12-month learner’s permit holding period and the intermediate license phase.

Missouri

Missouri has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit. Permit holders must pass a written, vision and road sign tests and may only drive when accompanied by a parent, guardian, certified driver trainer, or a driver age 25 or older with written permission from a parent.

  • Permit holders must accumulate at least 40 hours (10 at night) of certified driving.

At age 16, after holding the learner’s permit for 6 months, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license. Applicants pass vision, road sign, written, and driving tests, and must not have an alcohol-related offense within the last 12 months and not have a traffic conviction in last 6 months.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of 1 a.m. to 5 a.m. (except to and from a school activity, job, or an emergency).
  • For the first 6 months after being issued their intermediate permit, intermediate license holders may only have 1 passenger who is under the age of 19 (family member exempt). After the first 6 months, intermediate license holders may have no more than 3 passengers under the age of 19.

Drivers and their passengers are also required to wear seat belts.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license if they: (1) pass a vision test; (2) have not had the intermediate license suspended, revoked, or denied; and (3) have not any alcohol related offenses or traffic convictions within the last 12 months.

An applicant cannot receive an unrestricted license if the intermediate license is suspended, revoked, or denied when applying for a full driver’s license.

Montana

Montana has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14 and 6 months, individuals may apply for a learner’s permit.

  • Drivers must hold the permit for at least 6 months and complete 50 hours (10 nighttime) of certified driving.

At age 15, drivers may apply for an intermediate license.

  • Drivers are restricted from transporting more than 1 unrelated passenger under age 18 for the first 6 months, and more than 3 unrelated passengers under age 18 for the second 6 months.
  • Drivers are prohibited from operating a vehicle from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 16.

Nebraska

Nebraska has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals may apply for a learner’s permit, which is valid for 1 year. Individuals at least 14 years of age, but younger than 16, may apply for a learner’s permit for the purpose of allowing a student to legally practice driving if he/she lives a distance of 1.5 miles or more from the school and either resides or attends a school located outside a city with a population of 5,000 or more.

  • Drivers must hold a learner’s permit for at least 6 months before applying for a provisional permit.
  • Drivers must be accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old.

At age 16, drivers may apply for a provisional permit.

  • Applicants must complete an approved driver safety course and pass a written and driving test given by the driver safety course instructor, or complete 50 hours (10 hours at night) of certified driving time and pass a drive test administered by a driver license examiner.
  • Provisional license holders may not drive between midnight and 6 a.m. unless they are driving to or from home, work or a school activity. During the first 6 months of POP, the holder can only operate a motor vehicle with no more than 1 passenger who is not an immediate family member and who is under 19 years of age (secondarily enforced).
  • All persons being transported are required to ride secured in an occupant protection system.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

If the driver is holding an LPE, SCP, LPD, or POP, seat belts are required for the driver and all passengers front and rear seats (secondary enforcement).

Nevada

Nevada has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15 ½, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • During this stage individuals must be supervised by a driver at least 21 years old.
  • Drivers must hold the permit for at least 6 months, complete an approved driver education course and certify that they’ve received 50 hours (10 at night) of supervised driving practice before being eligible for an intermediate license.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders are prohibited from driving unsupervised from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. (secondarily enforced).
  • For the first 6 months, intermediate license holders are also prohibited from transporting any passengers under age 18, family members excepted (secondarily enforced).

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18, unless no program is offered within 30 miles of the home.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15 ½, individuals may practice driving if accompanied in the front seat by a parent, legal guardian, or other licensed adult who is 25 years of age or older.

At age 16, individuals who have successfully completed driver education are eligible for a Youth Operator’s License, which expires on the holder’s 21st birthday.

  • For the first 6 months, the youth operator may have no more than 1 passenger (other than family members) under 25 in the vehicle.
  • The driver shall not operate a motor vehicle between 1 a.m. and 4 a.m.
  • No holder shall operate a motor vehicle when the number of occupants exceeds the number of passenger restraints in the vehicle.
  • Youth operator must accumulate 40 hours of supervised driving with 10 hours at night.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

New Jersey

New Jersey has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, upon successful completion of driver education, an individual is eligible for a special learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may not drive unsupervised.
  • Individuals must hold the permit for at least 6 months and pass a road test to be eligible for an intermediate/probationary license.

At age 17, drivers may apply for an intermediate license.

  • A driver holding an intermediate/probationary license must display state-provided removable, transferable, highly visible, reflective decals indicating that the driver of the vehicle may be the holder of an intermediate license.
  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. and may not have more than 1 passenger unless supervised by a driver at least 21 years old (parents, guardians, and dependents are      exempted).
  • Drivers must hold the intermediate license for at least 6 months.

Permit and intermediate license holders and their passengers must always wear safety belts.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

In New Jersey, the graduated licensing law applies to adults. For persons 21 and older, individuals must also hold a learner’s permit for at least 3 months before reaching the intermediate phase, but the night and passenger restrictions are waived.

New Mexico

New Mexico has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals who have completed or are attending a driver education course are eligible for an instructional/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders must complete a driver education course and may only drive when supervised.
  • Permit holders must accumulate at least 50 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian supervised driving.

At age 15 and 6 months, after holding an instruction permit for at least 6 months drivers are eligible for a provisional license.

  • Provisional license holders may not operate a motor vehicle upon public highways between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m., unless accompanied by a licensed adult, or when traveling to or from work or a school function.
  • Provisional license holders are also prohibited from transporting more than 1 passenger younger than 21 (except family).

At age 16 years and 6 months of age, a person is eligible for an unrestricted license if he/she has successfully held a provisional license for at least 12 months.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

New York

New York has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, after passing required vision screening and knowledge tests, an individual is eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • The holder may only operate a vehicle between the hours of 5 a.m. and 9 p.m., when under the immediate supervision of a person who is at least 21 years old and who holds a license valid in New York for the type of vehicle being operated.
  • From 9 p.m. until 5 a.m. the holder of a permit must be accompanied by a licensed parent, guardian, or driver’s education teacher.
  • No learner’s permit holder may operate a vehicle within the city of New York unless it is between 5 a.m. and 9 p.m. and the permit holder is accompanied by a driver’s education teacher in a vehicle equipped with dual controls.
  • Front seat occupants are limited to the supervising driver and all occupants must wear safety belts.
  • Permit holder may not operate with more than 1 unrelated passenger under 21, and must have held a learner’s permit for 6 months while accumulating 50 hours (15 at night) of driving practice with a licensed parent, guardian, driving school instructor, and/or driver education teacher.

At age 16 and 6 months, individuals are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • The holder may operate a vehicle alone from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. or from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. only when driving to or from school, or to or from a place of business where the holder is employed, or when accompanied by a parent or guardian.
  • All vehicle occupants must be restrained and occupants are limited to 1 unrelated passenger under 21 unless they are a family member.

At age 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license, or at age 17 upon completion of driver education.

North Carolina

North Carolina has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals who pass driver education and a written test, and have a driving eligibility certificate are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may not drive unsupervised.
  • For the first 6 months, the permit holder may only drive between the hours of 5 a.m. and 9 p.m.
  • Every person riding in the vehicle operated by a permit holder must either be wearing a properly fastened safety belt or be safely restrained in a child passenger restraint system.
  • Permit holders must complete 60 hours of practice driving (including 10 hours at night).

At age 16, after passing a road test, earning a driving eligibility certificate, and holding a learner’s permit for at least 12 months, individuals may obtain a limited provisional license.

  • Provisional license holders may drive unsupervised between 5 a.m. and 9 p.m. or at any time when driving directly to or from work or as a member of a volunteer fire, rescue or emergency medical service. At all other times, drivers must be supervised by a parent, guardian, grandparent, or a person approved by any of them, who has been licensed for at least 5 years.
  • Provisional license holders are restricted from transporting more than 1 passenger under 21 unless accompanied by a supervising driver (family exempted). However, individuals transporting family members under 21 may not transport any other passengers under 21 unless supervised.
  • Every person riding in the vehicle operated by a provisional license holder must either be wearing a properly fastened safety belt or be safely restrained in a child passenger restraint system.

At 16 years and 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license if they have: (1) held a provisional license for at least 6 months; (2) not been convicted of a moving violation or seat belt infraction during the preceding 6 months; (3) completed 12 hours of practice driving (including 6 at night); and (4) a driver eligibility certificate.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

North Dakota

North Dakota has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14, individuals are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders under age 16 must accumulate 50 hours of supervised practice driving.

Individuals under age 16 must hold the learner’s permit for at least 12 months, and persons age 16 must hold the permit for a minimum of 6 months, before obtaining an intermediate license.

  • Individuals may only drive when accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 18 years of age and has had at least 3 years of driving experience and is occupying a seat beside the driver.
  • Individuals under age 16 may not drive between 9 p.m. (or sunset, whichever comes later) and 5 a.m., unless driving to or from home and a school, work or religious activity.
  • Individuals under age 16 may not carry more passengers than the vehicle manufacturer’s suggested passenger capacity.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Ohio

Ohio has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 15 and 6 months, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Individuals operating with a permit may not drive unsupervised and must accumulate at least 50 (10 at night) hours of parental/guardian certified driving.
  • Drivers with learner’s permits may not drive between midnight and 6 a.m. unless supervised by a parent or guardian.

At age 16, drivers who complete the learner’s permit phase and a driver training course are eligible for a probationary license.

  • Probationary license holders under age 17 may not drive between midnight and 6 a.m. unless traveling to or from work, school or school functions (secondarily enforced); or have more than 1 non-family member as a passenger unless they are accompanied by a parent or guardian.
  • Individuals 17 and older with a probationary license may not drive unsupervised between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. unless traveling to or from work or school functions (secondarily enforced).

At age 18, drivers who have completed the probationary license stage and remained traffic and alcohol violation-free for at least 12 months are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15 ½, after instruction in driver education, or through an approved parent-taught driver education course, and individual may apply for a learner’s permit. The written test for a permit may be waived if the individual has completed driver education. Individuals who do not take driver education must wait until age 16 to receive a learner’s permit.

  • Drivers must hold the permit for 6 months and certify that they have received 50 hours (10 at night) of practice driving.
  • They may only practice between 5 a.m. and 10 p.m.
  • Permit holders must be supervised at all times by a licensed driver at least 21.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.
  • Intermediate license holders are also prohibited from transporting more than 1 passenger unless supervised (family members, guardians, and licensed drivers over 21 are exempted).

At age 16 ½, after holding the intermediate license for at least 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license. Individuals who don’t complete an approved driver education course must hold the intermediate license for 1 year before being eligible for an unrestricted license.

At age 18, an individual is eligible for a restricted commercial license who has passed all portions of the commercial driver license examination other than the driving test. The licensee may drive a commercial vehicle only when accompanied by a licensed commercial driver who is at least 21 years of age.

Oregon

Oregon has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders may only drive when accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old and who is occupying the front passenger seat.
  • Drivers must hold the permit for at least 6 months and accumulate at least 50 hours of certified driving (100 if person doesn’t complete an approved driver education course) under the supervision of a person who is at least 21 years old who has had a license for at least 3 years before being eligible for a provisional license.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for a provisional license.

  • The holder of a provisional license may not, for the first 6 months after issuance of the license, operate a vehicle that is carrying a passenger under 20 years of age who is not a member of the licensee’s immediate family.
  • For the second 6 months, the licensee may not operate a motor vehicle that is carrying more than 3 passengers who are under 20 years of age and who are not members of the licensee’s immediate family.
  • For the first year of the intermediate license, individuals may not drive between midnight and 5 a.m. unless driving to and from a school event for which no other transportation is available, for employment purposes, or when accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 25 years of age.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • A learner’s permit holder can drive the class of vehicle the permit allows him or her to drive under the direct supervision of a person who meets the following conditions: (1) is at least 21 years of age or, if a spouse of the permit holder, is at least 18 years of age; (2) is licensed in Pennsylvania to drive a vehicle of the class being      driven by the holder of the learner’s permit; and (3) is seated beside the holder of the learner’s permit unless the vehicle is a motorcycle.
  • A learner’s permit holder must obtain certification, signed by the parent, guardian, or spouse of the minor, stating that the minor has completed 65 hours, including 10 hours at night and 5 hours of inclement weather, of practical accompanied driving experience and has passed the driving test.

At age 17, or if the person has held a learner’s permit for that class of vehicle for 6 months, an individual is eligible for an intermediate or junior driver’s license.

  • Junior driver’s license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.
  • During the first 6 months of holding a junior driver’s license, individuals may not drive with more than 1 unrelated passenger under age 18, unless accompanied by a parent or guardian. After the first 6 months, if crash and conviction free, individuals may drive with no more than 3 unrelated passengers under 18, unless accompanied by a parent or guardian.

At age 17, a driver is eligible for an unrestricted license if: (1) he/she completed an approved driver education course; and (2) for a period of 12 months after receiving a junior driver’s license was not the cause of a reportable accident, and has not been convicted of any driving violations.  Without completing driver education, drivers must wait until age 18 to be eligible for an unrestricted license.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 16, individuals who have completed a driver training course and passed a standardized written examination are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders must always be in the company of a supervising driver who must sit in the front seat. Permit holders and their passengers must be properly restrained.
  • Permit holders must complete 50 hours of supervised driving, including 10 hours during the nighttime.

At 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for a limited provisional/intermediate license who have: (1) held a permit for at least 6 months; (2) passed a road test; and (3) not been convicted of a moving or seat belt violation in the preceding 6 months.

  • Limited provisional/intermediate license holders are prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 1 a.m. and 5 a.m.
  • Limited provisional/intermediate license holders and their passengers must be properly restrained.
  • Drivers are prohibited from transporting more than 1 passenger under the age of 21 within the first year of provisional licensure (family members exempt).

At age 17 years and 6 months, drivers who have held the limited provisional/intermediate license for at least 12 months and have been moving and seat belt violation free during the preceding 6 months are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

South Carolina

South Carolina has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a beginner’s permit.

  • Beginner’s permit holders may drive from 6 a.m. to midnight if a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old and has at least 1 year of driving experience accompanies the driver in the front seat. Beginner’s permit holders may drive from midnight to 6 a.m. if a licensed parent or guardian accompanies him or her in the front seat.
  • Permit holders must accumulate 40 hours (10 hours at night) of supervised driving.

At 15 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for a conditional/restricted license if they have: (1) passed a certified driver’s education course; (2) successfully passed a road test; and (3) satisfied the school attendance requirement.

  • Restricted license holders may drive alone during daylight hours from 6 a.m. until 6 p.m. (or 8 p.m. during daylight savings time). From 6 p.m. (or 8 p.m. during daylight savings time) until midnight, the restricted license holder must be accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 21 years of age. Between midnight and 6 a.m., restricted license holders may drive if a licensed parent or legal guardian accompanies them.
  • Drivers may not transport more than 2 passengers under the age of 21 unless they are accompanied by a licensed adult who is at least 21 years old. Family members and fellow students being transported to and from school are exempt.

At age 16 and 6 months, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license. Drivers applying for a full unrestricted license must have held a restricted license for 1 year and have no traffic offenses or have ever been involved in any at-fault collisions.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 17.

South Dakota

South Dakota has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 14, individuals are eligible for an instruction/learner’s permit.

  • From 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. the permit holder must be accompanied by a person holding a valid operator’s license who is at least 18 years of age, that has at least 1 year of driving experience, and who is occupying the front seat beside the applicant. From 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. a parent/legal guardian must accompany the permit holder.
  • South Dakota does not have requirement for supervised driving time.

At 14 years and 6 months (14 years and 3 months with approved driver education), individuals are eligible for a restricted minor’s permit/intermediate license who have: (1) held the permit for at least 6 months (3 months if successfully completed an approved driver education course); (2) passed all applicable tests; and (3) not been convicted of a traffic violation during the past 6 months.

  • A restricted minor’s permit/intermediate license holder is prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.
  • South Dakota does not have a passenger restriction.

At age 16, drivers who have not been convicted of a traffic violation during the 6 months prior to application are eligible for an unrestricted license, after completion of the instruction permit requirements.

Tennessee

Tennessee has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Individuals with a learner’s permit are prohibited from using a cell phone while driving.
  • A permit holder may only drive when supervised and may not drive between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
  • Permit holders must accumulate 50 hours (10 at night) of parental/guardian supervised driving.

At age 16, after holding a permit for 6 months, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license as long as they do not accumulate 6 or more points on the permit.

  • Individuals who move to Tennessee are eligible for an intermediate license if they have held a valid learner’s permit for at least 180 days in another state.
  • Intermediate driver’s license holders may not operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless accompanied by a parent or legal guardian or by a licensed driver who is at least 21 and has been designated by the person’s parent or guardian.
  • Intermediate driver’s license holders may not operate a motor vehicle with more than 1 passenger unless: 1 or more passengers are 21 or older and possesses a valid unrestricted license; or the additional passengers are siblings of the driver.

At age 17, drivers who have held an intermediate license for at least a year, have maintained a safe driving record with no less than 6 points, and have not contributed to an accident are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Safety belt use is mandatory for all GDL license holders and passengers 4 to 17.

Texas

Texas has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals enrolled in driver education and have passed vision, sign recognition, and knowledge tests are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • A permit holder may only operate a vehicle when supervised by a person occupying the seat next to the operator who holds a license that qualifies the operator to operate that type of vehicle, is 21 years old, and has at least 1 year of driving experience.
  • Permit holders must accumulate 30 hours (with 10 hours at night) of behind the wheel practice, supervised by an adult over the age of 21.

At age 16, drivers who have held a learner’s permit for at least 6 months are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. (secondarily enforced).
  • Intermediate license holders may not transport more than 1 passenger under age 21, except family (secondarily enforced), and are prohibited from using a cell phone.

At age 18, drivers who have successfully completed the intermediate license phase are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Utah

Utah has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals who pass the knowledge, physical and mental fitness tests are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Learner’s permit holders may operate a motor vehicle if supervised by a driving instructor or a licensed driver who is at least 21 years of age.
  • Learner’s permit holders must complete a driver education program.
  • A person 17 years of age or younger shall hold a learner’s permit for 6 months before applying for a provisional Class D license.
  • Driver’s education students must complete at least 6 hours of behind-the-wheel driving using a dual-control motor vehicle with a certified driving instructor seated next to the student.
  • Drivers must accumulate at least 40 (10 at night) hours of parental supervised driving.

At age 16, drivers are eligible for a Class D/Intermediate license.

  • For the first 6 months, license holders may not transport any passenger under 21 who is not an immediate family member unless accompanied by a licensed driver at least 21 years of age (secondarily enforced).
  • Class D/Intermediate license holders under the age of 17 may not operate a motor vehicle upon any highway between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. unless accompanied by a licensed driver at least 21 years of age, or to and from the driver’s place of employment and their place of residence. Drivers may drive directly home from the school building if returning from school or from a school sponsored event.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

Vermont

Vermont has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Permit holders must also accumulate at least 40 hours (10 at night) of driving supervised by a parental, guardian, driver education instructor, or adult age 25 or older.

At age 16, drivers who have held the permit for at least 1 year and have been conviction free for at least 6 months are eligible for a junior/intermediate license.

  • For the first 3 months of the junior/intermediate license, drivers may not transport any passengers except parents, guardians, or driver education instructors. During the second 3 months, drivers may only transport siblings when supervised (secondarily enforced).
  • Vermont does not have a restriction on nighttime driving.

At age 16½, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license if they have been suspension-free for at least 6 months.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under 18.

Virginia

Virginia has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 15 years and 6 months, individuals are eligible for a learner’s permit.

  • Individuals must hold the permit for at least 9 months (minimum age — 16 years and 3 months).
  • Permit holders must accumulate at least 45 (15 at night) hours of parental/guardian supervised driving before being eligible for an intermediate license.

At age 16 and 3 months, drivers who have held the permit for at least 9 months are eligible for a junior/intermediate license.

  • Provisional license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of midnight and 4 a.m. (secondarily enforced).
  • Provisional license holders under 18 are prohibited from transporting more than 1 passenger under 21 for the first year they hold their license. After the first year, provisional license holders are prohibited from transporting more than 3 passengers under 21 until they reach age 18, unless driving to and from a school activity or accompanied by a passenger age 21 or older (secondarily enforced). Family members are exempted from all passenger restrictions.

At 18, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 19.

Washington

Washington has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, an individual is eligible for a permit if the person is enrolled in an accredited traffic safety education program. At age 15 1/2, individuals not yet enrolled in driver’s education are eligible for a learner’s/instruction permit.

  • A person holding a permit may drive a motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, on the public highways if an approved instructor or a licensed driver with at least 5 years of experience occupies the seat beside the driver.
  • Parents, guardians, or employers must certify at least 50 hours of driving experience (10 at night), supervised by someone at least 21 years old who has had a valid driver’s license for at least 5 years.

At age 16, drivers who have held a permit for at least 6 months are eligible for an intermediate license. Drivers must also pass a driving skills examination and an accredited traffic safety education program to receive an intermediate license.

  • For the first 6 months, the intermediate license holder may not operate a motor vehicle that is carrying any passengers under the age of 20 who are not members of the licensee’s immediate family. For the next 6 months, the licensee may not operate a motor vehicle that is carrying more than 3 passengers who are under the age of 20 and who are not members of the licensee’s immediate family (secondarily enforced).
  • Intermediate license holders are also prohibited from driving unsupervised between the hours of 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. for the first 12 months except when accompanied by a parent, guardian, or a licensed driver who is at least 25 years of age (secondarily enforced).

At age 17, drivers are eligible to have the passenger and nighttime driving restrictions lifted, and  drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license at age 18.

Driver education is required for all license applicants under age 18.

West Virginia

West Virginia has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, individuals are eligible for an instruction learner’s permit.

  • An applicant for permit must pass a vision and written test.
  • A permit allows a person to operate a motor vehicle when accompanied by a licensed driver who is at least 21 years of age, or a driver education or driving school instructor.
  • Permit holders under age 18 may not drive between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. and may not carry more than 2 passengers in addition to the supervisory driver.
  • Permit holders must complete 50 hours (including 10 hours at night) of certified practice driving, as recorded on a certification form completed by a parent or legal guardian.

At age 16, after holding a learner’s permit for 6 months and passing a road test, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive a vehicle unsupervised between 5 a.m. and 10 p.m.
  • Intermediate license holders are prohibited from transporting passengers under the age of 20 during the first 6 months.  During the second 6 months, no more than 1 passenger under 20, except family members.
  • If a driver with an intermediate license receives 2 or more moving violations, the license will be suspended until age 18.

At age 17, drivers are eligible for an unrestricted license if they hold an intermediate license and have been infraction-free for 1 year.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At 15 years and 6 months of age, after passing a knowledge test, individuals are eligible for an instruction/ learner’s permit.

  • During this stage, individuals may drive only when supervised by a parent or guardian or a person meeting the requirements of those permitted to travel with the holder of an instruction permit.
  • Drivers must hold this permit for at least 6 months and accumulate at least 30 hours (10 at night) of parent/guardian supervised driving.
  • Permittees may not operate a motor vehicle during the hours of darkness unless accompanied by a qualified instructor or licensed person who is 25 years of age or more, has at least 2 years of licensed driving experience, and is occupying the front passenger seat.

At 16, upon successful completion of the permit stage, drivers are eligible for an intermediate license.

  • Intermediate license holders may not drive unsupervised between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m.
  • Drivers may not transport more than 1 passenger (family members exempted).

Driver education is required for license applicants younger than 18.

After holding an intermediate license for 9 months, the nighttime and passenger restrictions are lifted, drivers are eligible for a full unrestricted license at age 18.

Wyoming

Wyoming has a system of graduated licensing for novice drivers.

At age 15, an individual may apply for a permit.

  • Permit holders must hold it for at least 10 days and complete 50 hours (10 nighttime) of certified driving.

At age 16, drivers may apply for an intermediate license.

  • Drivers are restricted from transporting more than 1 person under the age of 18 (family is excluded).
  • Drivers may not operate a vehicle from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m.

At age 16 and 6 months, individuals are eligible for an unrestricted license after completing driver education.  Without driver education, individuals are eligible for an unrestricted license at age 17.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico does not have a system of graduated licensing for teen drivers.


Canada

Alberta

Alberta has a system of graduated licensing for new drivers. The program consists of 2 stages: learner and probationary. A minimum of 3 years is necessary to complete both stages; 4 years is required if the individual applies for a learner’s license at 14 years of age.

Licensees must hold a learner’s license (class 7) for at least 1 year and may drive only when accompanied by a fully licensed (non-GDL probationary) driver who is 18 years of age or older, and who is seated next to the driver.

Learner’s licenses (class 7) are issued to persons 14 years of age or older who pass a vision test and a written knowledge test on the rules of the road. Parental consent is required for persons under 18 years of age.

To obtain a probationary license, the driver must be 16 years of age or older and pass the standard Alberta road test. Learners licensees are not permitted to drive from the hours of midnight to 5 a.m.  Both learners and probationary licensees must have no more passengers than available seat belts, and have a zero alcohol level at all times while operating a motor vehicle. Fewer demerit points are allowed than for fully licensed drivers. Drivers cannot upgrade to a commercial license while under probation and cannot serve as an accompanying driver to a learner licensee.

To become a fully licensed driver (class 5), the individual must be suspension free for the last year of the 2-year probationary stage and pass an advanced road test. The minimum age for a full unrestricted license is 18.

British Columbia

BC’s Graduated Licensing Program applies to new drivers of any age. At 16, teens are eligible for a Learner’s License.

The Learner’s License includes the following conditions/restrictions: must be accompanied by a qualified supervisor (at least 25 years of age who holds a valid full-privilege driver’s license); the supervisor must sit beside the learner; a Learner Driver (L) sign must be displayed in the back windshield or on the rear of the vehicle; the learner must not drive after consuming any amount of alcohol (zero BAC); only 2 passengers may be in the vehicle – the supervisor and 1 additional passenger; the learner may only drive between 5 a.m. and midnight.

After holding the Learner’s License for at least 12 months (9 with approved driver education), the learner is eligible to take a road test to graduate to the Novice stage.

The Novice stage includes the following conditions/restrictions: a Novice Driver (N) sign supplied by ICBC must be displayed in the back windshield or on the rear of the vehicle; the novice must have a zero BAC; must not carry more than 1 passenger other than immediate family members unless accompanied by a qualified supervisor at least 25 years of age who holds a valid full-privilege driver’s license.

After holding the Novice License for at least 24 consecutive months (18 months with approved driver education) without a citation, the driver is eligible to take a Class 5 or 6 road test to graduate to a full-privilege license.

Manitoba

Manitoba has a graduated licensing program for novice drivers. At 15 1/2, teens enrolled in a high school driver education course with at least 8 completed hours of classroom instruction are eligible for a learner’s permit.

A learner’s permit authorizes a person to drive a motor vehicle, except for a motorcycle, when accompanied and supervised by a person who: (1) holds a valid license for the type of vehicle being operated; (2) has held the license for a period of at least 3 years; (3) occupies the seat nearest the driver; and (4) is conscious and in a condition to assume responsibility of vehicle operation.

Novice drivers must hold the learner’s license for at least 9 months before being eligible for an intermediate license.

Intermediate license holders may not drive between midnight and 5 a.m. or with more than 1 passenger unless there is a qualified supervising driver in the front seat. They may also drive with no more additional passengers than the number of functioning seat belts in the back seat.

Drivers must complete 15 months in the intermediate stage before graduating to the full license stage.

Drivers in the full stage must continue to maintain a zero blood alcohol content, while driving, for the first 36 months.

The minimum age for an unrestricted license is 17 years and 6 months.

New Brunswick

New Brunswick has a system of graduated licensing for teen drivers.

A stage 1 learner’s license may be obtained if a person is at least 16 years of age, has successfully passed a visual test and a road traffic knowledge examination, and pays all required fees.

A stage 1 learner’s license authorizes a driver to operate a vehicle if accompanied and supervised by a licensed driver who holds a valid license for the type of vehicle operated, other than a learner’s license with at least 3 years of driving experience. The passenger must occupy the seat beside the driver or if there is no seat beside the driver, a seat inside the motor vehicle. Stage 1 learner’s license holders are not permitted to drive between midnight and 5 a.m.

A driver is qualified to hold a stage 2 driver’s license when the driver has: (1) held a stage 1 learner’s license without interruption for the preceding 8 or more calendar months, has successfully passed a licensed driver training course during the previous 2 years, and has passed the required road test; or (2) held a stage 1 learner’s license without interruption for the preceding 12 or more calendar months and has passed the required road test.

Teens are eligible for a stage 2 license at 16 years and 8 months. For the first 12 months of licensure, stage 2 license holders under age 21 are prohibited from driving between midnight and 5 a.m. and are not permitted to carry more than 3 passengers, with only 1 in the front seat.

After 12 months of stage 2 licensure, drivers can apply for a full Class 5 license.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador has some form of graduated licensing for teen drivers. At 16, teens are eligible for a Class 5, Level 1 Permit.

During the learner’s stage: (1) teens may only drive when supervised by a licensed driver with at least 4 years of experience; (2) teens may not transport any passengers, except accompanying driver or licensed instructor; (3) teens may not drive between midnight and 5 a.m.; and, (4) teens must drive with a Novice Driver Sign on the rear of the vehicle with 5 cm (2 inches) black on white lettering.

Teens must hold the Class 5 Level I license for a minimum of 12 months if an approved driver education program is completed, the time requirement is reduced to 8 months. Teens must also pass a road test before progressing to the next stage.

After successful completion of the Class 5, Level I license teens (17 or 16 and 8 months) are eligible for a Class 5, Level II license permit.

During the intermediate stage, the number of passengers must be restricted to the number of seat belts in the car. Teens may only drive between midnight and 5 a.m. if a licensed driver with at least 4 years of driving experience accompanies them or if the permit holder works and can provide the police with proof of his or her working schedule.

Novice drivers must have a zero blood alcohol concentration.

Teens must hold the Class 5, Level II permit for 12 months without suspension before being eligible for an unrestricted license (minimum age 17 and 8 months).

Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories has a system of graduated licensing for new drivers. A drivers license (Class 7) can be obtained at age 15 and must be held for a minimum of 12 months suspension free. A probationary driver’s license (Class 5P) can be obtained upon successful completion of the Learner’s stage, and must be held for a minimum of 12 months suspension-free. An unrestricted license can be obtained at 17 at the earliest.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia has a system of graduated licensing for newly licensed drivers.

A person must be 16 to obtain a learner’s permit. This permit must be held for 12 months unless a driver education course is taken; then it must only be held for 9 months.

Learner’s permit holders are not permitted to have passengers, except an experienced driver who holds at least a Class 5 license. Suspensions will delay graduation to the newly licensed driver stage by the minimum time requirement.

Once a road test has been successfully completed, the learner enters the newly licensed stage for a minimum of 2 years.

Conditions of the newly licensed stage are no more than 1 front-seat passenger unless accompanied by an experienced driver, no upgrade beyond a Class 5 driver’s license, and no driving between midnight and 5 a.m., unless accompanied by an experienced driver.

A newly licensed driver may apply for an exemption from the nighttime driving curfew for employment purposes. The driver must take the most direct route to and from work, and is not permitted to have any passengers in the vehicle.

To graduate from the newly licensed stage, the driver must successfully complete a 6-hour defensive driving course, or complete the full driver training course which consists of 25 hours of theory and 8 hours of driving time. A copy of the applicant’s graduation certificate must be provided, in person or by mail, to any Registrar of Motor Vehicles office for recording purposes. An unrestricted license can be obtained at 18 years and 3 months.

Nunavut

Class 7 learner’s permit issued at age 15; full license at 16.

A person learning to operate a motor vehicle must be accompanied by a person who holds a valid class of driver’s license that authorizes the operation of that type of vehicle and, where that license is Class 1, 2, 3 or 4, has a minimum of three years experience operating that type of vehicle; or (b) where that license is Class 5, has a minimum of two years experience operating that type of vehicle.

Nunavut

Residents of the Territory much apply for a Nunavut driver’s license after 90 days of living in the Territory. The applicants must surrender his or her driver’s license from the other jurisdiction.

The driver’s license must be carried at all times when operating a vehicle.

Ontario

Ontario has a form of graduated licensing for all drivers. At 16, teens are eligible for G1 license. Two-step licensing program takes 20 months to complete.

G1 license holders must: (1) be accompanied by a fully licensed driver who has at least 4 years driving experience and a BAC of less than .05%; (2) ensure the accompanying driver is the only other person in the front seat; (3) ensure the number of passengers in the vehicle is limited to the number of working seat belts; (4) refrain from driving on “400-series” highways or high speed expressways; and (5) refrain from driving between midnight and 5 a.m. A new driver must hold a G1 license for a minimum of 12 months before attempting a G1 road test. This time can be reduced to 8 months if the licensee successfully completes an approved driver education course.

A G2 licensee may drive on any highway but must  ensure that the number of passengers in the vehicle are limited to the number of working seat belts.

A G2 driver must hold a G2 license for a minimum of 12 months before taking the G2 road test. The minimum age for an unrestricted license is 16 years and 8 months.

If the G2 novice driver has held the license for less than 6 months, he or she may not have more than 1 passenger in the motor vehicle who is under age 20 between midnight and 5 a.m., unless the passengers are immediate family members.

After holding the G2 license for 6 months, the novice driver may drive with up to 3 passengers in the motor vehicle who are under age 20 (family members exempt) between midnight and 5 a.m. These restrictions do not apply to G2 novice drivers who are at least 20 years old.

All drivers under age 22 must maintain a zero BAC.

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island has a form of graduated licensing for teen drivers. At 16, teens are eligible for a learner’s permit if enrolled in a driver education program.

A holder of a learner’s permit can only drive if he or she meets the following criteria: (1) must be accompanied by a licensed driver who has held a license for 4 years; (2) the licensed driver must sit in the passenger seat; and (3) only members of the immediate family of the licensed operator can be in the vehicle, or the permit holder can be accompanied by a licensed instructor and no more than 4 persons, not including the instructor.

A learner’s permit holder must hold the permit for 1 year, or 275 days if permit holder has completed a driver education program, before being eligible for a regular driver’s license.

At 16, teens are eligible for a regular license. However, a driver of a motor vehicle who has held a driver’s license for less than 1 year may only be accompanied by 3 passengers who are immediate family of the driver, or 2 from the immediate family of the driver and 1 other passenger.

The number of passengers allowed in the vehicle must not exceed the number of passengers that can be accommodated in seating positions that have seat belts.

When the driver of a motor vehicle has held a valid driver’s license for more than 1 year but less than 2 years, the driver may not transport more passengers than seat belts.

The minimum age for an unrestricted license is 17.

Quebec

Québec has graduated licensing for new drivers. Before they may apply for any type of license (see below) except for a moped or a farm tractor, they must obtain, at least, a learner’s license. The rules to obtain a motorcycle license differ from those for a passenger vehicle. They are explained further:

Passenger vehicle: New drivers are eligible for a learner’s permit from the age of 16. They can obtain it after passing the driving knowledge test and the vision test. The holder of a learner’s permit must, when driving a passenger vehicle, be assisted by a person who has held, for at least 2 years, a valid driver’s license for that class of vehicle. The person must be seated beside the holder of the learner’s license, and be in position to give him or her assistance and advice.

New drivers must hold the learner’s permit for at least 12 months before being eligible for a probationary driving license. The probationary license is obtained after passing the road test. It must be kept valid for 24 months. Drivers then qualify for a regular driver’s license.

Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan has a graduated licensing program. At 15, teens are eligible for a Class 7 license, if they complete the high school driver education program (otherwise 16 years). There are three stages to Saskatchewan’s graduated driver’s licensing program – Learner, Novice 1, and Novice 2. Drivers in the GDL program cannot consume any amount of alcohol (zero BAC), cannot be a supervising driver, and cannot obtain a commercial class driver’s license or school bus endorsement.

Class 7 learners licenses may be issued to drivers who are a minimum of 16 years of age (15 years of age if enrolled in an approved high school driver education program) that pass written and vision tests. The learner’s stage lasts for nine months, excluding interruptions (non-renewal, refusal, license suspension). Drivers education is mandatory, drivers have the option of high school training (30 hours in-class, six hours in-car) or commercial training (six hours in-class, six hours in-car). In the learner stage, drivers must have in the front passenger seat at all hours a supervising driver, who must be an experienced, licensed driver and be conscious and capable of lawfully assuming operation of the vehicle. Learners may not driver between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. and passengers (excluding the supervising driver) must be immediate family members (defined as spouse, child, parent, step-parent, sibling or grandparent). The number of passengers is limited to the number of seatbelts.

Class 5 – Novice 1 license holders must be a minimum of 16 years of age and must pass a class 5 road test. Novice 1 licenses must be held for 6 months. Novice 1 license holders may only transport 1 passenger at a time who is not an immediate family member.  The number of passengers is limited to the number of seatbelts. After holding a Class 5 – Novice 1 license for 6 months, excluding interruptions (non-renewal, refusal, license suspension), drivers are eligible for a Class 5 – Novice 2 license.

Class 5 – Novice 2 licenses are held for 12 months, excluding interruptions (non-renewal, refusal, license suspensions), and while keeping free of any at-fault collisions, traffic convictions or license suspensions. Novice 2 license holders may not transport any more passengers than there are seatbelts.

Yukon

The Yukon has a form of graduated licensing.

A learner’s licensee may operate a motor vehicle while accompanied by a person who holds a subsisting license for the operation of the vehicle being used, who has held such license for a period of at least 2 years, and who is seated immediately beside the licensee. In addition the person accompanying the learner licensee must not have any alcohol in his or her blood, and his or her ability to operate a motor vehicle must not be impaired by drugs or any other substance. Learner’s license holders must accumulate 50 hours of driving experience and may have no more than 1 non-family member passenger in order to apply for a novice license at age 16.

Except in the case of a learner’s license, a driver’s license is not issued to anyone under the age of 16 years.

A novice licensee may drive without a co-driver except between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m.  A novice driver may not transport more than one passenger under 13 or a combination of passengers including a passenger under 13 and a passenger under 20 unless accompanied by a passenger over 20.

The application of a person under 18 years of age must be signed by the person’s parent or legal guardian unless the applicant can prove that he or she is self-supporting and unable to obtain the consent of a parent or guardian, or that he or she is married. The minimum age for an unrestricted license is 17 years and 6 months.