Driver’s License Examination (Click here for Canada)

United States

Alabama

All persons applying for original driver’s license must take a written, vision (20/40 acuity required in each eye), and driving examination.

Alaska

For an original license, applicants must pass a written exam, vision test (20/40 vision acuity required), and driving test.

Arizona

Examinations are conducted by ADOT or approved third parties, or waived upon documentation of successful completion of a driver education course approved by MVD.

Examination includes eyesight test (20/40 visual acuity required), written test, roadside demonstration test, and medical questionnaire.

ADOT retains discretion to require a licensee to submit to re-examination upon giving at least 5 days advance written notice to the licensee.

Arkansas

Original license requires a written or oral examination, driving test, and vision test.

Renewal applications and applications by licensed new residents require only a vision test.

The minimum visual acuity for an unrestricted license is 20/40.

California

Written exam includes knowledge of motor vehicle laws, English language proficiency, and traffic signs and signals recognition.

Roadside test is mandatory but may be waived if the applicant submits a license held by another jurisdiction and the DMV is able to verify there are no holds or impediments on the license.

Roadside examination officers may refuse to administer the exam if applicant is unable to provide proof of financial responsibility.

Applicants for a provisional license who fail the written exam must wait 1 week before re-taking the exam; those who fail the driving exam must wait 2 weeks before re-taking.

Hearing and vision tests are also administered; visual acuity may not be 20/200 or worse when wearing corrective lenses.

Application for Class A or B license shall also include a report of medical examination of an applicant given not more than 2 years prior to the date of the application.

Colorado

Required for every applicant of a driver’s or a minor’s license. Includes vision (a minimum of 20/40 acuity required), written, and behind-the-wheel tests.

Connecticut

Prior to receiving an initial driver’s license, an applicant must pass a vision test with minimum visual acuity of 20/40, a written examination of the rules of the road, and a driving test.

Delaware

Applicants must pass a knowledge exam, a vision screening (20/40 visual acuity required), and a driving test for an original license.

A vision screening is required every 8 years upon renewal of license.

District of Columbia

A driving test, vision test (20/40 visual acuity required), and written knowledge test are required for an initial Driver’s license.

Drivers previously licensed to drive in another jurisdiction may skip the driving test unless they have failed the District’s driving test within 6 months or are at least 75 years of age.

Applicants at least 75 years of age are limited to 3 examinations within a year.

Applicants for a learner’s permit must pass the vision and written tests.

An applicant must have a visual acuity of at least 20/40 in 1 eye, and no worse than 20/70 in the other eye, with or without corrective lenses.

The inspection sticker shall be placed in the lower right-hand corner of the windshield.

To comply with emissions standards, failing vehicle owners must make at least $450 in repairs before receiving conditional approval.

Florida

For an applicant for a Class D or a Class E Driver’s license, the required examination shall include a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity required) given by the Driver’s license examiner designated by the FLHSMV or by a licensed ophthalmologist or optometrist and a test of the applicant’s hearing given by the Driver’s license examiner or a licensed physician.

The examination shall also include a test of the applicant’s ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic; his or her knowledge of the traffic laws, including the laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol. Testing shall also include an actual demonstration of the ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a motor vehicle.

The FLHSMV may waive the knowledge, endorsement, and skills tests for an applicant from another state or a province of Canada who surrenders a valid driver’s license from that state or province.

The examination for an applicant of a commercial driver’s license shall include the following: tests of the applicant’s eyesight, hearing, ability to read and understand highway signs and traffic rules of the state. Tests will also include a skill test specifically designed for the class of commercial license being applied for as well as an examination of the applicant’s ability to perform an inspection of his or her vehicle.

Georgia

The DDS examines every applicant for a driver’s license.

Applicants 18 years of age or older with a valid and current license issued by another state of the United States or the District of Columbia who surrender their previous licenses to obtain a Georgia license are only required to take an eyesight test (20/40 visual acuity required).

All other applicants are required to take both a written and on-the-road driving test as well as an eyesight test.

An applicant that fails the driving test the first time must wait until the next day to retake the test. After the second or subsequent failure, the applicant must wait 7 working days to retake the test.

Hawaii

A driver’s license examination includes a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity required) and any further physical examination the examiner of drivers finds necessary to determine the applicant’s fitness to operate a vehicle, a written exam demonstrating ability to understand highway signs and rules of the road, and a roadside examination.

Every applicant under 18 years old must provide proof of completion of an approved driver education program and a behind-the-wheel training course.

An applicant that is at least 16 years old, but not more than 17 years old, will not be examined by the examiner of drivers unless the applicant has held a valid instruction permit for at least 90 days.

The examination for an instruction permit does not include a roadside test.

An applicant who fails the knowledge or practical test must wait 1 week before retaking the exam.

Idaho

Every person applying for an instruction permit, seasonal driver’s license, driver’s license, or motorcycle endorsement must have an examination consisting of an eyesight test and a driving knowledge test.

Drivers not previously licensed are also required to take a driving skills test.

A minimum of 20/40 visual acuity in at least 1 eye, with or without corrective glasses, is required.

A driving knowledge or skills test can also be administered to any licensed driver or applicant at the discretion of the examiner.

An applicant for a motorcycle endorsement may also be tested on safe motorcycle operating practices and traffic laws relating to motorcycles.

Illinois

Examinations are required for applicants for a driver’s license or permit that have not been previously licensed as a driver under the laws of Illinois or any other state or country, or any applicant for renewal of such driver’s license or permit when such license or permit has been expired for more than 1 year.

Applicants must successfully complete a vision screening, written examination, and driving examination.

An applicant who is required to take a vision screening must obtain a binocular (both eyes) acuity reading of 20/40 or better before being issued a driver’s license without vision restrictions. If an applicant utilizes corrective eyeglasses, contact lenses, or a combination thereof in order to obtain an acceptable acuity reading, a driver’s license issued to this applicant shall be restricted to operating a motor vehicle while using the corrective lenses.

Drivers must be reexamined at least once every 8 years unless they possess a driving record devoid of any convictions of traffic violations or evidence of committing an offense for which mandatory revocation would be required.

Indiana

All initial examinations will include an eyesight test, a testing of the ability of the applicant to read and understand highway signs, a knowledge of Indiana traffic laws, a testing of the ability of the applicant to exercise reasonable control in the vehicle, and any physical or mental examination the Bureau sees fit, if necessary.

The Bureau will waive the demonstration portion of the exam for any person who has passed a driver education class and road test given by an approved commercial driver training school or a high school driver education program.

The state requires that both eyes have 20/40 visual acuity or better for an unrestricted license.

Iowa

The MVD may examine every new applicant for a driver’s license or any person holding a valid driver’s license when the MVD has reason to believe that the person may be physically or mentally incompetent to operate a motor vehicle, or whose driving record appears to the MVD to justify the examination. The examination may include a vision test (20/40 visual acuity is required in at least 1 eye), knowledge test, and driving skills test.

An applicant for a new or renewed noncommercial driver’s license may submit a vision report signed by a licensed vision specialist in lieu of the vision test.

Kansas

An examination is required when an applicant for a license does not have a valid driver’s license, or answers in the affirmative that he has had a prior revocation, suspension, or refusal of a license.

Eye test (20/40 vision acuity required) and written and driving tests are required for original license.

An applicant for an initial Driver’s license shall be examined by the DMV prior to the issuance of a license. The applicant must pass a vision test, a test of the applicant’s ability to read and understand highway signs and the applicant’s knowledge of the traffic laws of the state, and a road test.

Kentucky

All examinations are conducted by the State Police and are held in the county in which the applicant resides.

The examination includes a vision test (requires 20/40 visual acuity), a test of the applicant’s knowledge of traffic signs, signals, and traffic laws, and a roadside demonstration test.

Non-residents need not take the examinations provided they hold a valid license from a state that affords a reciprocal exemption to a Kentucky resident.

Louisiana

All applicants for a Louisiana license must pass a knowledge-based and a skills-based driving examination. An eye examination is also given (20/40 visual acuity is required).

The knowledge portion of the examination includes testing a person’s understanding of Louisiana motor vehicle laws, highway signs, railroad and highway crossing safety, and knowledge of the classification of motor vehicle the applicant will be driving.

The skills test will include an on-the-road driving test and possibly a simulated skills-based driving test.

The knowledge and skill tests will be administered by the Department or by a third party approved by the Department.

Minnesota

Every applicant for a driver’s license must include a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity required), ability to read and understand highway signs, traffic laws, knowledge of the effects of drugs and alcohol while driving, knowledge of a driver’s ability to safely and legally operate a motor vehicle, and an actual demonstration of the driver’s ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable care while driving the vehicle. The examination can also include anything else that the Department deems necessary.

The examination will be given either in the county where the applicant resides or at a place that is reasonably convenient to the applicant.

If the applicant has a valid driver’s license from a jurisdiction (including the U.S. Armed Forces) that gives a comparable driving examination, the Department can waive the requirement that the applicant demonstrate the ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a motor vehicle.

A driver’s license can be renewed when the applicant has passed an eye examination.

The Department may require any examination to determine the incompetence, physical or mental disability or disease of any licensed driver, or any conditions which would affect the driver from exercising reasonable and ordinary control over the motor vehicle. If, as a result of the examination, the Department believes that the driver is an unsafe person to operate a motor vehicle, the Department may cancel the driver’s license.

No examination shall be required only for the reason that any licensed driver has attained a certain age.

Mississippi

A driving test will be administered that examines the applicant’s ability to read and understand road signs and to give the required signals. The applicant must take a test composed of at least 10 questions relating to the safe operation of a motor vehicle.

Prior to administration of the driving test, the license examiner will inspect the horn, lights, brakes, inspection certificate, and vehicle registration of the motor vehicle that the applicant expects to operate while being tested. If any of the items are deficient, no license or endorsement shall be issued to the applicant until they have been repaired.

Any applicant holding a valid driver’s license from another state is not required to take a written test.

An applicant for an original motorcycle endorsement or restricted motorcycle operator’s license is required to pass a written test which consists of questions relating to the safe operation of a motorcycle and a skills test. An applicant may be exempt from the skills test if a certificate of successful completion of an approved course can be provided.

An applicant is required to pass a vision test (requires 20/40 vision acuity).

Driver’s license examinations may be conducted in high school driver’s education classes instead of by the Driver Services Bureau.

Missouri

Any applicant for a license who does not possess a valid license issued pursuant to the laws of the state, another state, or a country which has a reciprocal agreement with the state of Missouri regarding the exchange of licenses must be examined. Any person who has failed to renew his license within 6 months after the expiration date must take the complete examination.

To obtain an Under 21 Full License, an applicant must pass the vision (20/40 visual acuity required) and road sign recognition tests but is not required to take the written and driving tests if the applicant has already passed these tests.

Maine

Passage of skills, visual (20/40 visual acuity required) and written examinations are required for licensure.

A physical examination may be required and may be performed by a licensed physician, physician’s assistant, nurse practitioner, or other competent treatment personnel as determined by the medical advisory board.

A vision test must be passed (1) at the time of the 1st license renewal after age 40, (2) at every 2nd license renewal after initial renewal at age 40 until the person reaches 62 and, (3) at every license renewal after age 62.

Maryland

Each applicant for an original Driver’s license shall pass the following exams: a vision screening; a test indicating the ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic; a test of the applicant’s knowledge of the traffic laws of the state and safe driving practices; and a driving test.

The vision standards for a driver with restricted license are a visual acuity of 20/70 in at least 1 eye, and a continuous field of vision of at least 110 degrees with at least 35 degrees lateral to the midline of each side.

The MVA may issue a restricted license for daylight driving only to an applicant with at least 20/70 vision in 1 eye, and a continuous field of vision of at least 110 degrees with at least 35 degrees lateral to the midline of each side. The operator is allowed to operate a vehicle only from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset.

A driver with a telescopic lens placed at the top of a corrective vision lens is eligible for a Class C license if he or she demonstrates a visual acuity of at least 20/100 in 1 eye and a field of 150 degrees horizontal vision with or without corrective lenses; but if the applicant has vision in only 1 eye, he or she must demonstrate a field of at least 100 degrees horizontal vision. Applicants with a visual acuity of at least 20/70 in 1 eye are also eligible for a Class C license.

An applicant will be issued a commercial driver’s license when he or she has passed the knowledge and skills tests for driving a commercial motor vehicle which complies with the minimum federal standards established by the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986.

Massachusetts

Tests required for obtaining a license include: a written test, a road test, and a vision screening (20/40 visual acuity required), testing both field vision and basic color recognition.

Michigan

Vision screening (20/40 visual acuity) and knowledge tests are required to obtain a Level 1 graduated license. If the applicant is age 18 or older, he or she must pass a vision screening and knowledge test to obtain a Temporary Instruction Permit (TIP).

Teens in the graduated licensing program will take the knowledge test as part of segment 1 of driver education. Knowledge tests will be administered by the Department of State.

An original license examination without a vehicle group designation or endorsement must include a behind-the-wheel road test.

The Secretary of State may waive the requirement of a behind-the-wheel road test, knowledge test, or road sign test of an applicant for an original operator’s or chauffeur’s license without a vehicle group designation or endorsement who at the time of the application is the holder of a valid, unrevoked operator’s or chauffeur’s license issued by another state or country.

Vision screenings are required with each renewal conducted in-person.

The results of a knowledge test for an original group designation or endorsement shall be valid for 12 months.

Montana

Each applicant is subject to a vision test (20/40 visual acuity required), knowledge test, and driving skills test.

A resident who has a valid driver’s license issued by another jurisdiction may surrender that license for a Montana license of the same class, type, and endorsement upon payment of the required fees and successful completion of a vision examination.

The MVD may impose restrictions on an applicant’s license if the MVD determines that an applicant’s ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the safe operation of a motor vehicle on the highway depends on the use of adaptive equipment or operational restrictions.

A road test may not be given more than once every 7 days.

Nebraska

Vision Test: The DMV vision test measures visual acuity and field of vision. If corrective lenses are needed to meet the standards, they must be worn at all times while driving, and the license issued will indicate this. If the standards are not met, either an ophthalmologist or optometrist will be required to check the findings. Applicants who cannot meet the minimum vision standards will be denied a license.

Written Test: There is a separate written test for each class of license. Applicants renewing a valid Nebraska operator’s license will have the written test waived if they renew the license prior to expiration or within 1 year after expiration. The examiner has access to Nebraska driver records and will determine eligibility upon application for renewal.

Driving Test: The driving test measures the ability to operate a specific class of vehicle under typical driving conditions. Examiners may, at their discretion, give a driving test to any license applicant. The vehicle must be furnished by the applicant for the driving test and it must be representative of the type of license for which he or she is applying.

Nevada

When a person with a valid license from another state applies for a Nevada license, that application is to be treated as an application for transfer.

A driver’s license examination shall include tests of the applicant’s ability to understand official devices used to control traffic and the applicant’s knowledge of safe driving practices and traffic laws; a vision test (20/40 visual acuity required) or report from an ophthalmologist, optician, or optometrist; and a road test.

The DMV may waive an examination for a person holding a valid license from another jurisdiction, unless that person is under the age of 21, has had his or her license suspended, revoked, or canceled in the preceding 4 years, has been convicted of certain crimes in the preceding 7 years, or has restrictions on his or her driver’s license.

New Hampshire

The DMV administers three tests for Driver Licensing: a vision, a knowledge and a road test. The vision and knowledge tests are given on a first-come, first served walk-in basis only. Appointments are not made for knowledge tests but applicants must arrive at the DMV office no later than 3:30 p.m. for an operator or motorcycle test or 3:00 p.m. for a commercial test. Appointments are required for road tests; however, are only scheduled once all required knowledge tests have been passed. Scheduling of road exams is based on the availability of appointments at each driver licensing location. All road test vehicles must be fully registered and in safe operating condition. If the road test vehicle is required to have an inspection sticker, it must be up to date.

The DMV shall issue driver’s licenses only to applicants whose visual acuity is between 20/40 and 20/70. No license may be issued to an applicant whose visual acuity is worse than 20/40 in both eyes, or worse than 20/30 if there is vision only in 1 eye, unless special consideration is granted by the DMV.

New Jersey

New Jersey residents are required to have a valid New Jersey driver license to operate a motor vehicle. First-time drivers must complete the Graduated Driver License program to obtain a basic license, requiring applicants to pass various tests.

State law requires every licensed driver to pass a vision screening successfully (20/50 visual acuity required) at least once every 10 years as a condition of driver’s license renewal, but this provision is not currently enforced.

When a written examination is given as part of a high school driver education program, a certified driver education instructor, or special education teacher may be allowed to read the examination to any student who has been diagnosed with a deficiency in reading, perception, or other learning disability.

New Mexico

The MVD is responsible for establishing qualifications and administering examinations.

Applicants get no more than 3 chances to pass the examination within a period of 6 months from the date of the application.

All 1st-time applicants must pass a written test and a road test.

The MVD is required to test the eyesight of all applicants (20/40 visual acuity is required).

New York

Knowledge tests are appropriate for the class, license, or license endorsement, are in written format, and are available in either English or Spanish.

Road tests are required for all classes of licenses, except a learner’s permit.

The vision test may be administered by the DMV, or another state’s DMV, or by a licensed physician, optometrist, ophthalmologist, optician, or registered nurse. Any statement of visual acuity (20/40 required) will only be acceptable if the date of the examination is not more than 6 months prior to the date of submission.

North Carolina

In order to demonstrate an applicant’s physical and mental ability to operate a vehicle, an applicant must pass tests issued by the DMV, which may include road tests, vision tests (20/40 visual acuity required), and oral or written tests.

The DMV may not require a person who is at least 60 years of age to parallel park a motor vehicle as part of a road test.

An applicant using bioptic telescopic lenses is eligible for a regular Class C driver’s license if they meet specific visual acuity requirements and successfully complete a road test. The license or permit holder will be restricted to driving between one-half hour after sunrise and ending one-half hour before sunset.

North Dakota

Applicants for a driver’s license are required to take a written, road, and eye examination (20/40 visual acuity required). The written and road tests may be waived for an applicant who has successfully passed these tests in this or another state.

Ohio

Written and driving tests are required for all 1st-time applicants.

The examination shall include a test of the applicant’s knowledge of motor vehicle laws, including the laws on stopping for school buses, a test of the applicant’s physical fitness to drive, and a test of the applicant’s ability to understand highway traffic control devices.

Vision screening (20/40 visual acuity) is required for all applicants and renewals. The vision screening is conducted at the office of the deputy registrar receiving the application for license renewal.

The Registrar may waive the examination of any person applying for the renewal of a driver’s license or motorcycle operator’s endorsement, provided that the applicant presents either an unexpired license or endorsement or a license or endorsement which has expired not more than 6 months prior to the date of application.

An applicant for a driver’s license shall give an actual demonstration of the ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a motor vehicle by driving the same under the supervision of an examining officer.

Oklahoma

Every applicant for an original Class A, B, C, or D license must pass a vision test (20/60 visual acuity required for Class D; 20/40 required for Class A, B, or C), a written test concerning the applicant’s ability to read and understand highway signs and his or her knowledge of the traffic laws of the state, and a road test.

The DPS may waive any portion of the test for applicants with a valid out-of-state license.

Holders of Class A, B, or C licenses are eligible for a Class D license without taking another test.

Oregon

Examinations for a license include a test of the applicant’s eyesight; a test of the applicant’s knowledge of the traffic laws; and a behind-the-wheel test.

An applicant’s visual acuity must be 20/70 or better when looking through both eyes. An applicant may meet the eyesight standards with the use of a corrective lens or lenses.  If an applicant’s visual acuity in the applicant’s best eye is worse than 20/40, the applicant will be restricted to daytime driving only.  The person must have a field of vision of at least 110 degrees.

All drivers 50 years of age or older must have their eyesight checked by the DMV every time they apply for renewal.

The drive test may be waived if the person is applying for a commercial driver’s license or Class C license and the applicant holds a valid out-of-state license, or applies for the commercial license or Class C license within 1 year of the expiration of the license.

Pennsylvania

Every applicant for a driver’s license must be examined for the type or class of vehicle that the applicant desires to drive. The examination includes a physical examination, a screening test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity required), and a test of the applicant’s ability to read and understand official traffic-control devices, knowledge of safe driving practices, and knowledge of Pennsylvania’s rules of the road.

The automobile examination also includes a driving skills test that requires knowledge of controls, ability to parallel park, and on road driving course where the driver’s compliance with driving rules of the road are examined. Applicants for a commercial driver’s license are required to successfully pass required knowledge tests and a driving skills test that involve pre-trip inspection, basic maneuver skills test, and on road driving. If the Department finds it necessary to further determine an applicant’s fitness to operate a motor vehicle safely upon the highways the Department may require 1 or more of the following types of examinations: (1) a vision examination by an optometrist or ophthalmologist; (2) a physical examination; or (3) a knowledge examination.

Rhode Island

All applicants for a license must pass a written test, road test, and eye examination (20/40 visual acuity required). Any person who successfully completes a driver education course who has passed a standardized written driver’s license examination does not have to take the written examination.

All applications for an instruction permit or license must contain: (1) the full name, date of birth, sex, and residence address of the applicant; (2) a brief description of the applicant; (3) whether the applicant has been previously licensed by another state or country; and (4) whether any other previously held license has even been suspended or revoked and for what reason.

A driver’s license must have a distinguishing number assigned to the licensee, the full name, date of birth, residence address, brief description of the licensee, photograph of the licensee, indication of desire to donate tissue or organs, and the licensee’s signature.

License does not normally include a social security number.

Drug or alcohol offenses may cause postponement of new driver’s license eligibility.

South Carolina

The Department must examine every applicant for a driver’s license, unless the Department waives this requirement. The examination must include a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity required), his or her ability to read and understand highway signs and all South Carolina traffic laws. This test must also include an actual demonstration of the applicant’s ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of the type motor vehicle for which a license is sought. The Department may require a further physical and mental examination if it considers this necessary to determine the applicant’s fitness to operate a motor vehicle. The Department must make provisions for giving an examination in the county where the applicant resides.

South Dakota

The Department must examine every applicant for an operator’s license, unless the Department determines that the examination is not necessary.

The examination must include a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 vision acuity is required), ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic, and knowledge of South Dakota’s traffic laws. An actual demonstration of the applicant’s ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a motor vehicle is also required, but may be waived for an applicant who is at least 16 years old and who has successfully passed an actual ability test in his or her state.

Operator’s examinations must be given either in the county where the applicant resides or a place next to the county that is reasonably convenient. The test will be given within 30 days of the date in which the application was received. The Department may require any other physical or mental examination that it deems to be appropriate.

Tennessee

Every applicant for any type of license or learner’s permit must pass a written examination that tests the applicant’s ability to read and understand highway signs as well as the applicant’s knowledge of traffic laws and must demonstrate actual ability to exercise ordinary care in the operation of a motor vehicle. All applicants must also submit to an eye exam (20/40 visual acuity required).

The knowledge and skills tests may be waived for a non-resident who is licensed in another state and has established residency in Tennessee.

An applicant who presents evidence that the applicant has completed a driver education and training course offered for Class D vehicles at a public school or commercial driver training school is deemed to have satisfactorily completed the licensing examinations required by the department.

Texas

Unless otherwise exempt, an applicant for a driver’s license must pass a vision test (20/40 vision acuity required), a sign recognition test, a knowledge test, and a driving skills test.

A licensed driver education school may administer the vision, sign recognition, and knowledge tests.

A facility authorized and certified by the Department of Public Safety may administer the behind the wheel driving test. These facilities include military, educational institution, or driver education and training service providers.

Knowledge and skills tests are waived for persons holding a valid out-of-state license when applying for a Texas license of the same or lower type.

Utah

The Driver License Division shall examine every applicant for a license by testing the applicant’s eyesight by the DMV or by allowing the applicant to furnish to the DLD a statement from a physician or optometrist licensed in Utah.

The Division requires the applicant be able to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic. The state requires 20/40 vision and peripheral fields (side vision) of 120 degrees in each eye to pass the vision test. It also requires the applicant to be able to read and understand simple English used in highway traffic and directional signs and to have knowledge of the state traffic laws.

The Division is also allowed to assess other physical and mental abilities it finds necessary to determine the applicant’s fitness to drive a motor vehicle safely on the highways. The applicant must be able to exercise ordinary and reasonable control while driving a motor vehicle.

Vermont

Before an operator’s license is issued for the 1st time in this state, or if an applicant’s previous Vermont license has expired over 3 years ago, then the applicant must pass a satisfactory examination consisting of road, written, and vision tests (20/40 visual acuity required).

Virginia

Every applicant must submit to an examination to determine his or her mental and physical qualifications and ability to drive.

A written examination and road test are required for first-time applicants. Prior to taking the examination, applicants shall either present evidence that they have completed a state-approved driver education class or submit to the examiner a behind-the-wheel maneuvers checklist.

Any person under the age of 18 who applies for a driver’s license and fails the motor vehicle knowledge test shall not be eligible for retesting for at least 15 days.

Vision screening with a 20/40 or better vision in 1 or both eyes is required.

Any person who fails the behind-the-wheel or knowledge examinations for a driver’s license administered by the DMV shall not be eligible to retake the test for 2 days.  Such a person who fails 3 times shall not be permitted to take such examination a fourth time until he successfully completes the in-vehicle or knowledge component of driver instruction at a driver training school.

Washington

The driver’s licensing examination includes a vision test (20/40 visual acuity is required in at least one eye), a written knowledge test, and a driving skills test.

No person may be issued a commercial driver’s license unless that person has passed a knowledge and skills test for driving a commercial motor vehicle that complies with minimum federal standards.

All applicants for a driver’s license or renewal must take a vision test administered by the DOL.

An applicant for a basic driver’s license is not required to take the knowledge and driving skills tests if the applicant is surrendering a valid driver’s license issued by the applicant’s previous home state, has not failed a Washington driving test, or has not failed a Washington knowledge test.

West Virginia

Upon presenting one proof of identity, one proof of Social Security number, two proofs of WV residency with name and physical address, and proof of legal name change document(s) if the name has changed or is different than the provided proof of identity document, the DMV shall examine applicants for a license to operate a motor vehicle.

The examination shall include a test of the applicant’s eyesight (20/40 visual acuity or better); ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic; knowledge of traffic laws; and knowledge of the effects of alcohol on persons operating vehicles.

The examination shall include an actual demonstration of the ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a vehicle, and any physical or mental examination as the DMV considers necessary to determine the applicant’s fitness to operate a motor vehicle safely.

Wisconsin

Examination includes a knowledge test, including ability to read and understand highway signs, a driving skills demonstration test, and a vision test (20/40 visual acuity required).

Wyoming

WYDOT examines every applicant for a driver’s license and instruction permit. The examination includes a test of the applicant’s eyesight, knowledge, and driving skills.

WYDOT may waive the knowledge and driving skills test for any person applying for a renewal license.

Visual acuity of 20/40 or better with or without corrective lenses is required.

Puerto Rico

Practical examination is required prior to granting of license to show ability to operate vehicle safely.

Individual applying for learner’s permit must take and pass traffic and public safety examination.


Canada

Alberta

An applicant must: (1) complete and pass a knowledge examination for the appropriate class of license required; (2) complete and pass a road examination for the appropriate class of license required.

British Columbia

Every applicant for a driver’s license may be required to pass a vision and medical screening, knowledge test, and road test to obtain the class of license applied for.

The basic knowledge test contains 50 multiple-choice questions that test the applicant’s understanding of material in the ICBC driving guide including rules of the road and traffic signs.

The test is available in English, French, Arabic, Cantonese, Croatian, Farsi, Mandarin, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese.

Manitoba

The registrar may not issue a license of any class unless the person passes an examination as required by the registrar.

Except for a learner’s permit, the registrar may exempt an applicant for a driver’s license from taking any examination if: (1) the applicant holds a valid driver’s license issued by a competent authority in a reciprocal jurisdiction; (2) the applicant is a member or a family member of NATO personnel, and holds a valid driver’s license in the country where the member permanently resides; (3) the applicant holds a valid driver’s license of any class issued under the authority of the Commander of the Canadian Forces Europe; or (4) in the 3-month period preceding the application, the applicant held a valid driver’s license issued by a competent authority of a province or territory of Canada.

The registrar may issue a license of any class without requiring the applicant to take an examination if the person has not allowed the license to lapse for a period of more than 4 consecutive years.

The examination must include: (1) a test of the person’s eyesight, ability to read and understand highway traffic signs, and knowledge of highway traffic laws; and (2) a test of the person’s ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable care when operating a motor vehicle.

New Brunswick

The examinations for an original license include tests of the applicant’s eyesight; the ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic, and the knowledge of the traffic laws of the province; and, an actual demonstration of the ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control of the vehicle.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Depending on the individual’s particular circumstances, an applicant for a Newfoundland and Labrador driver’s license may have to take a written test, a driving test, a vision screening examination, and a medical examination.

Northwest Territories

A person who has not been issued a driver’s license and wishes to obtain one or wishes to increase the privileges associated with his or her existing license must pass a written and a practical driving examination depending on the class of license being sought.

Nova Scotia

The registrar may not issue a license of any class unless the person passes an examination as required by the Department.

Learner’s permit holders and newly licensed drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol level.

The Department will not issue a license to a person under the age of 18 unless his application is signed by a parent or custodial guardian of the applicant; the employer of the applicant if his or her mother and father are dead and he or she has no guardian; or the spouse of an applicant if the spouse is 18 years or older.

Nunavut

A person who has not been issued a driver’s license or wishes to obtain a class of driver’s license that has greater privileges than the class of driver’s license issued to that person may apply under this section to the Registrar for the class of driver’s license permitted by regulations.

The Registrar shall not issue a class of driver’s license to a person making an application unless that person passes, by the prescribed standard, the theoretical and practical driving examinations for that class of driver’s license.

Ontario

An applicant for an Ontario driver’s license must take vision, knowledge, and driving skills examinations unless otherwise exempted.

A resident of Ontario is not required to take the written and driving skills examinations for a Class G or M driver’s license if he or she holds a valid driver’s license issued by another Canadian province or territory of an equivalent class, has at least 24 months driving experience, and surrenders that license.

A person with a valid driver’s license from the United States, Japan, South Korea, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Great Britain, or Canada Forces Europe may get full Class G license privileges if they have at least 24 months driving experience. The applicant is not required to take a knowledge or driving test but must pass a vision test and surrender the license from the other country. In the United States, however, Arizona, D.C., Illinois, New Jersey, and Vermont are jurisdictions that Ontario will not recognize as exempt from a required driver’s license examination unless the license holder obtains a driving transcript dated within the past six months.

A driver from any other country with 2 or more years of driving experience within the last 3 years must pass a vision and knowledge test to be issued a G1 license. The person may then immediately book a G2 road test, and if they pass, they will receive full driving privileges. If the person does not pass the G2 road test, they may immediately book a G1 road test.

A driver from any other country with less than 2 years of driving experience is subject to the same graduated licensing procedure as new drivers but may receive credit for their experience.

Diplomats and their immediate family members are not required to take the written and driving skills examinations when applying for a Class G license.

Prince Edward Island

A written or oral exam, a driving test, and a vision test are required for an original license.

The road test is waived if the applicant has a license from another North American jurisdiction that has not been expired over 1 year; the vision test is required if the license has been expired for more than 1 year.

Written, vision, and driving tests are required if the applicant’s out-of-province license has been expired over 1 year.

Quebec

Driving knowledge test, vision test, and road test are required for original license. Driver education is mandatory for for both car and motorcycle licenses, for all applicants, regardless of age.

Saskatchewan

A written or oral exam, a driving test, a vision test, and driver education are required for the original license. If a license holder is moving from a jurisdiction outside of Canada, the United States, Switzerland, Australia, Isle of Man, Germany, Austria, Great Britain, or South Korea, he or she will have to take a written, vision, and a driving examination.

Drivers from another Canadian jurisdiction or the United States may exchange their license for a Class 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 license and a motorcycle endorsement. If an applicant is moving from Switzerland, Australia, Isle of Man, Germany, Austria, Great Britain, or South Korea and he or she holds a valid driver’s license, the applicant can apply for a Saskatchewan Class 5 and motorcycle driver’s license by surrendering his or her out-of-state driver’s license and by paying the appropriate fees; the applicant will not have to take any examination, unless the Department determines that any tests are needed.

Yukon

To receive a license each applicant for each class of driver’s license must (1) take a basic written and sign recognition test and receive a score of at least 80%; (2) take a supplementary written test and receive a score of at least 80%; (3) meet the vision standards; and (4) pass a road test.

Road tests may be waived for Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 where the applicant has successfully competed tests conducted by the applicant’s employer or an approved training school.

The CTS may require an applicant to take a medical examination.

An applicant must pass a written and eye examination to obtain a Class 7 GDL learner’s license.

A person must hold a learner’s license for at least 6 months and pass a road test before obtaining a novice license.